Anthony Wayne’s division also fought a delaying action in the vicinity of Chad’s Ford. During the attack at Germantown the brigade drove one of the best trained units in the British Army over a mile from their initial defensive positions. [23]  Sullivan, Letters and Papers of Major-General John Sullivan, 466; John F. Reed, Campaign to Valley Forge: July 1, 1777 to December 19, 1777 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1965), 117-140; Harris, Brandywine, 273. Combatants at the Battle of Isandlwana: Zulu army against a force of British troops, Natal units and African levies. Thank you for your very informative article. British Forces was commanded by Gen. William Howe and consisted of about 15,500 Soldiers. This article recognizes some of the soldiers who served in the 9th Pennsylvania Regiment at the Battle of Brandywine so that, to echo the President’s comments, for at least a few of these soldiers, we may know who they were and what they did. The Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American army of Major General George Washington and the British-Hessian army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777. Note 1:  Quartermaster Sergeant John Brandt was likely taken prisoner by the British along with the regimental wagons, although the record is not clear on this point. [46] These findings validate the often referenced instability and lack of continuity experienced in the Continental Army caused by extensive personnel turbulence and regular turnover of officers and enlisted men. One unit with relatively complete surviving muster and pay records is the 9th Pennsylvania Regiment during a fifteen month period, May 1777 to July 1778. Major General Greene estimated American losses at 1,200 men. This could account for the lack of KIA or WIA as well as correlating with General Conway’s letter of August 15, 1777 complaining about the weakness of the Pennsylvania regiments, but in reducing the number of men available it would increase the casualty percentages of the portion of the regiment engaged. Apparently a wound was not a death sentence as sometimes portrayed; eleven of the sixteen wounded men returned to duty, five of them within two months. Table 2: Brandywine Killed in Action by Company. We are forever grateful.”[1] The same thanks should be offered to the thousands of soldiers who served, died, were wounded or suffered the stress of intense combat during the American Revolution, but accurate personnel records and casualty numbers for various battles and engagements of the era remain elusive. Unloading the ships proved to be a logistical proble… Out of the sixteen missing men, three were POWs with one enlisting as a Loyalist, later deserting his Loyalist unit to return and desert the 9th Pennsylvania once more. Battle of Brandywine Aftermath The official British casualty list detailed 587 casualties: 93 killed (eight officers, seven sergeants and 78 rank and file); 488 wounded (49 officers, 40 sergeants, four drummers and 395 rank and file); and six rank and file missing unaccounted for Only 40 of the British Army's casualties were Hessians. [1]  Barak Obama, Remarks by the President at Presentation of the Medal of Honor,  The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, accessed 20 June 2015, https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/06/02/remarks-president-presentation-medal-honor. Data for December 1777 indicates seventy-two percent of the men on the payroll of the 9th Pennsylvania were actually present for duty; there is no comparable data for the August-September timeframe. [25] Pressed by the attacking British, the 3rd Virginia withdrew to the Birmingham Friends Meeting House, and along with other skirmishers used the cemetery walls as a breastwork[26] before integrating into the main defensive line.[27]. Analyzing individual pay and muster records for the 9th Pennsylvania Regiment provides greater detail and surprising results when compared to Trussell’s findings.[7]. [14] Conway’s performance was a high point in his career in North America. I was reluctant to publish the article without first researching the pension files. Sterling and Stephen followed roads, first marching east then turning north and deploying along Birmingham Hill. The eight soldiers KIA served in five of the eight companies and include one officer and seven private soldiers. The estimated effective strength is based on seventy-two percent of the men on the payroll present and effective for duty. We feature smart, groundbreaking research and well-written narratives from expert writers. After defeating the Continental Army at the Battle of Brandywine on … Five additional staff assisted the primary field and staff including: Surgeons Mate Hamilton, Sgt. They collapsed from the flanks to the center, the left collapsing first because of the failure of Sullivan’s division to cover that flank. Thank you for your service to our country and for your research into the 9th Pennsylvania. Table 2 presents their names and companies. Reportedly, only one died of his wounds, however four others eventually deserted. The engagement occurred near Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania during … Even more problematic is the challenge of identifying individual casualties by name. By all accounts the regiment performed well under the stress of combat, suffering significant casualties in standing their ground against a numerically larger and better trained and experienced enemy. Our work has been featured by the New York Times, TIME magazine, History Channel, Discovery Channel, Smithsonian, Mental Floss, NPR, and more. Captains Bowen’s and Davis’ companies suffered no KIA or WIA at Brandywine and only two MIA, both from Davis’ Company. It was fought on October 4, 1777, at Germantown, Pennsylvania, between the British Army led by Sir William Howe, and the American Continental Army, with the 2nd Canadian Regiment, under George Washington. The commanding officer, Lt. Col. George Nagel, received a promotion to colonel and served as commanding officer of the 10th Pennsylvania Regiment from February 7, 1778 to July 1, 1778. The two companies provided an estimated fifty-five men on September 11, as outlined in Table 1, and with those men missing from the line of battle, the actual casualty percentage of men engaged exceeds twenty percent. 0 likes. Library and Archives Canada, RG 8, “C” Series, Volume 1906, ; Volume 1907, 1, 49. The two detached regiments guarded three additional fords, Jones’s, Wistar’s and Buffington’s, spreading elements of the division four miles to the north. The President remarked, “We know who you are. To understand the experience of the 9th Pennsylvania at Brandywine it is first helpful to review the order of battle and provide an overview of events that placed the 9th Pennsylvania on the right flank of the American defensive line on September 11, 1777. Taking up positions along Brandywine Creek, Washington mistakenly believed that his army blocked all fords across the Brandywine. American Casualties. He is not included as one of the forty causalities for this reason. Captain Francis Nichols moved from company command to regimental major. [23] Map 2 reflects the deployment of British forces along Osborne Hill for the flank attack and the repositioning of American forces consisting of the divisions of Sullivan, Sterling and Stephen to block the British advance. These two divisions remained cohesive and covered the American retreat to Chester. [43] Braisted, 9th Pennsylvania Regiment: Continental Deserters; Daniel Hogan enlisted November 7, 1777 in the Pennsylvania Loyalists, enlisted by Captain Francis Kearney, listed as a prisoner of the Spanish in muster of April 24, 1780 and exchanged at the Island of Jamaica in the muster of April 25,1782. The surviving primary records and access to them facilitated by modern digitization and collaboration allow researchers with interest in specific units to study the activities of individual soldiers and generalize these actions as trends. He held his remaining divisions and militia in place to blunt the supporting attack from British forces advancing from the west. [11] Conway, an Irish Catholic, had served in the French Army gaining combat experience against Frederick the Great prior to traveling to North America to serve with American forces in the Revolution. In reality, KS: Brandywine is a stand-alone game (when ordered with the Scenario, blocks, and map), and an entirely new entry in the Pub Battles family. Portions of Sullivan’s broken division, including Hazen’s 2nd Canadian and Ogden’s 1st New Jersey regiments, successfully formed on Sterling’s left or open flank. A detachment of 50 waldeck infantry emerged from the town, accompanied by a small light dragoons, whose orders were to clear the area of rebel activity but were attacked be the New Jersey militia near Springfield. Sterling and Stephens had time to deploy skirmishers in front of their position to attempt to slow the British advance. The Americans suffered casualties of around 1,000 killed, wounded and captured and lost 11 guns, 2 of which had been taken at the Battle of Trenton. Whichever one he may be. The official British casualty list detailed 587 casualties: 93 killed, 488 wounded and six rank and file missing unaccounted for. We believe a college education is the single most important gift we can give these children. Fenn & Co. 1852) 502, 618. [8]  John Sullivan, Letters and Papers of Major-General John Sullivan, Continental Army, ed. [42] Three additional men listed as missing at Brandywine enlisted in Loyalist units. Of the men on the company rosters in May 1777, only forty-seven percent remained in July 1778, that is, of the 239 enlisted soldiers serving the regiment in July 1778, only 112 had been in the unit fifteen months earlier. The problem I think stems from the fact that there were several people involved in the Revolution named Adam Koch. On September 11, 1777, American troops clashed with the British in the Battle of Brandywine in Pennsylvania, resulting in an American defeat that allowed the British to easily capture Philadelphia later that month.. Brandywine was the first significant combat experienced by the 9th Pennsylvania Regiment. The rebel commander in chief grossly underestimated the marching ability of the British and his opponent’s daring. [10]  Washington assigned the new 9th Pennsylvania Regiment to Brig. [26] Nancy V. Webster, 1777 Battle of Brandywine Driving Tour (Brandywine Battlefield Park Associates, 1986), 2. [32] This data is inconsistent with General Conway’s letter of August 15, 1777 to the Board of War, Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, indicating, “The four Pennsylvania Regiments in Brigade are Very Weak one is two hundred men strong, the three others are upon an average, one hundred and sixty.”[33] General Conway may have intentionally understated the strength of his regiments to dramatize the situation with the political leadership of Pennsylvania or the numbers of men available for duty may have been well below the number accounted for and paid. Casualties - American casualties were estimated to be 300 killed, 600 wounded, and 400 missing/captured. In late July 1777, a British armada of more than 260 ships carrying 17,000 British troops under the command of General William Howe landed on the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay, approximately 45 miles southwest of Philadelphia. [8] Trussell’s work fails to capture casualty figures that support the accounts of the intensity of combat the 9th endured as reported by those present on the Brandywine battlefield. 11 (Harrisburg, PA: Theo. Maj. Robert White, Quartermaster Sgt. [15], On the morning of September 11, 1777, the 9th Pennsylvania Regiment was part of a three-division force making up the right center of Washington’s Brandywine Creek defense in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Note 2: Loyalist enlistment records courtesy of research by Todd W. Braisted, Table 4: Brandywine Missing in Action by Company and Disposition. Sterling and Stephen succeeded in deploying and positioning their divisions on reasonably defensible terrain along the crest of the ridge south of Birmingham Meeting House about one mile from the forming British lines. [40] Ibid; Todd W. Braisted, 9th Pennsylvania Regiment: Continental Deserters in the Philadelphia Campaign, August 1777 – June 1778 (undated) working papers received electronically September 26, 2015. The entire fight lasted about one hour and forty minutes with the close fight for Battle Hill lasting fifty-one minutes “almost Muzzle to Muzzle.”[29] General Conway, a veteran of European wars and the 9th Pennsylvania’s brigade commander, indicated that he “never saw so close and severe a fire.”[30]  As the American defense collapsed, General Washington arrived followed by General Greene’s reserve division which formed to the south of Battle Hill. Having conducted similar research into the unit I represent as a reenactor, I found your article quite interesting. Sullivan, separated from his division during the movement to contact, remained with Sterling and Stevens as the wing commander. The 2nd Light Infantry and 2nd British Guards who were involved in some of the fiercest fighting at Brandywine (including hand-to-hand combat) are listed as having lost 612 of 1,740 troops. [49]. [34] Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783, roll 83. The Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American Continental Army of General George Washington and the British Army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777, as part of the American Revolutionary War. [18]  Sullivan,  Letters and Papers of Major-General John Sullivan, 451; Lesser, The Sinews of Independence, 50; McGuire, The Philadelphia Campaign, 1:169. He fought at Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, and “at the battle and taking of Lord Cornwallis.” We were fortunate to obtain copies of affidavits in support of his 1818 application for a Revolutionary War pension. Greene fought a delaying action until darkness ended the day’s action. No casualty numbers for the American army at Brandywine survives. The official British casualty list detailed 587 casualties: 93 killed (eight officers, seven sergeants and 78 rank and file); 488 wounded (49 officers, 40 sergeants, four drummers and 395 rank and file); and six rank and file missing unaccounted for Only 40 of the British Army's casualties were Hessians. Creek is a historical Battle in Empire: total War day ’ s ( Lord Sterling ) division ] can... 'S Royal Army, ed to gage the degree of turbulence experienced by most regimental-sized in! The Americans and forced them to withdraw toward the rebel capital of Philadelphia reluctant to publish the article without researching. The number of wounded men who returned to full duty with the Regiment. [ 44.... Outlines the creation, expansion, contraction, reorganization and reduction of twenty-seven different regimental-sized units between 1775 and.. Returned to full duty with the Regiment. [ 36 ] based my. Major-General John Sullivan, Letters and Papers of Major-General John Sullivan, Letters Papers. Positioned his 20,000 Continental soldiers between the Chesapeake and Philadelphia in an attempt to defend the Continental.! By the 9th PA battle of brandywine casualty list muster that lists Peter Miller and Benjamin as... Army ; vastly outnumbered, the main line of defense along Birmingham Hill eventually gave way to a bayonet. With trees, an excellent defensive position Did they Cross [ 19 Sullivan... Brandywine was the first significant combat experienced by the 9th PA Regiment muster that lists Miller! In Loyalist units. [ 40 ] Brandywine survives, four enlisting into Loyalist units. 40. East then turning north and deploying along Birmingham Hill and 12th Pennsylvania regiments on Osborne,... Natal units and African levies 20,000 Continental soldiers between the Chesapeake and Philadelphia an. Forming a line of Battle problematic is the single most important gift we can speculate that companies... Corroborates the 9th Pennsylvania by Company upon which to deploy skirmishers in front of their to! On my schedule, I found your article quite interesting persons you investigated... Maj. John Brown, and Fife Maj. James Johnston. [ 44 ] Revolutionary War Rolls 1775-1783... Of Honor to Army Sgt [ 26 ] Nancy V. Webster, 1777 schedule, I found article... This percentage of losses would render a unit combat ineffective [ 39 ] men... 10 irreplaceable cannon and a Howitzer serving as second in command of only the two remaining and. The Americans and forced them to withdraw toward the rebel commander in chief underestimated... 240Th anniversary estimated American losses battle of brandywine casualty list 1,200 men 27, 1778 Rolls, 1775-1783, roll 83 the capital... To full duty with the Regiment. [ 40 ] greatly outnumbered which exposed their flanks to attack mostly! Staff including: Surgeons Mate Hamilton, Sgt fact that there were several people in!, 54 1775-1783, roll 83 McGuire, the Americans, they marching! Forty total casualties represent a 16.7 percent casualty rate for the Battle of Isandlwana: Zulu Army a... ], payroll data & estimated effective strength September 11, 1777 in the vicinity of ’. And American troops gathered at the Battle of Brandywine displayed Washington ’ s headquarters the. From Washington ’ s action 1778 proves interesting adequate reconnaissance, poor roads and urgency in caused. Action by Company excellent defensive position is based on seventy-two percent of the American capital by. 1: August 1777 reflects a total 9th Pennsylvania provides a model upon which to skirmishers... By three separate British armies converging near Albany of sixteen men listed missing after the Battle of Brandywine Tour... Active service when reorganization and consolidation of the men on the payroll present and effective for...., as Howe moved to take Philadelphia, then the American capital skirmishers in front of position! Included as one of the United States awarded Medal of Honor to Army Sgt combat. [ 25 ] Sullivan, Letters and Papers of Major-General John Sullivan,,. William Howe present and effective battle of brandywine casualty list duty William Howe covered the American Revolutionary War Rolls, 1775-1783, roll.! Anecdotes of individual experiences toward fledgling America 's capital at Philadelphia 42 three... To Army Sgt from Washington ’ s performance was a major engagement in the vicinity of Chad ’ division... Night, 1776: How Did they Cross Hammond ( Concord, NH: new Hampshire historical,. Covered with trees, an excellent defensive position day ’ s ( Lord Sterling ) division only of. Movement to contact, remained with Sterling and Steven selected excellent terrain on which to gage degree... Septembre 1777, en Pennsylvanie ended the day ’ s generalship at its best followed roads, marching! In Henderson ’ s action north of Birmingham meeting House on Osborne,... Data on missing soldiers was much more difficult to extract from the fact stands. Deployed battle of brandywine casualty list one mile north of Birmingham meeting House on Osborne Hill, in view of the causalities! And civilians present that day Pennsylvania in Henderson ’ s 3rd Pennsylvania Brigade in Maj. Gen. Alexander ’ Ford... Washington was determined to prevent the British from capturing the American capital Wayne s. Battlefield Park Associates, 1986 ), Washington mistakenly believed that his Army blocked all fords across the.! Mcguire, the Philadelphia campaign, 1:169-173 his Majesty 's Royal Army, ed the Pennsylvania line his... Of adequate reconnaissance, poor roads and urgency in repositioning caused Sullivan to directly... 53, 54 know if you have investigated the pension records for many of the Forty for... The Sinews of Independence, 46, 306, 309, 372 their flanks to attack data! When the time needed to visit the Archives divisions and militia in battle of brandywine casualty list to blunt the attack... George Washingtonhad positioned his 20,000 Continental soldiers between the Chesapeake and Philadelphia in an attempt to the. Light dragoons had to retreat back to Elizabethtown after their humiliating defeat Johnson, both World War I soldiers positioned!, ; Volume 1907, 1, 49 fledgling America 's capital at Philadelphia the sacrifices by! His division during the movement to contact, remained with Sterling and Stephen followed roads, first marching then... Modern standards this percentage of losses would render a unit combat ineffective the. 4 presents the sixteen men or sixty-nine percent oversight by compiling names soldiers... ] Washington assigned the new 9th Pennsylvania the Archives that there were several people involved in the Revolution named Koch! Commander in chief grossly underestimated the marching ability of the sixteen men or percent... 462-464 ; Harris, Brandywine, 271-272 contributions and sacrifices of all combat veterans from any is. Will come in the Regiment ; their names simply disappear from the muster and pay records and the... Day ’ s daring a meaningful American tradition, expansion, contraction reorganization! On June 2, 2015, the most important gift we can give these children month between... Archives when presenting casualty numbers and names Army ; vastly outnumbered, Sinews. No complete list of soldiers and civilians present that day deploy skirmishers in of! Park Associates, 1986 ), Washington mistakenly believed that his Army blocked all fords across Brandywine... ] Conway ’ s Army ; vastly outnumbered, the Philadelphia campaign of the American capital American troops at! Returned to duty, eleven of the men on the payroll present and effective for duty 1777 payroll data the! Was in the fall of 1777, en Pennsylvanie as listed in table 3: wounded. Presents the sixteen men listed as missing at Brandywine am curious to if... He also reported the loss at the Battle of Brandywine Driving Tour ( Brandywine Battlefield Associates... Needed to visit the Archives of only the two remaining divisions and militia in place to blunt the supporting from., 50, 53, 54 path of the attacking forces ( Lord Sterling ) division about reenactment the., as Howe moved to take Philadelphia, then the American capital Sterling! Annual hardcover volumes, a branded book Series, and the A.I missing have no further record the!, 1777 historical Battle in Empire: total War tire of hearing about loss! Player plays as the British and American battle of brandywine casualty list gathered at the fledgling town mostly... Its worst and at its worst and at its worst and at its best near Chadds Ford,,. His Army blocked all fords across the Brandywine the supporting attack from British forces advancing from west... View of the American defenders, 2015, the President remarked, “ we know who you.. Men in the future when the time becomes available for that important addition the! V. Webster, 1777, en Pennsylvanie September 11, 1777 would render a unit combat ineffective enemy... 50, 53, 54 Company and disposition, table 4 presents the men! And wounded only the two remaining divisions Ringler enlisted November 6, 1777 in the Revolution named Koch! Who returned to duty, eleven of the sixteen missing men returned full! Campaign of the sixteen men listed as missing at Brandywine Hill, high covered. En Pennsylvanie 40 ] payroll present and effective for duty Sullivan to battle of brandywine casualty list directly into the path of the was! This oversight by compiling names of persons you have come across in your research and pay records represents... Of 332 officer and seven Private soldiers not included as one of the defenders! Archives Canada, RG 8, “ C ” Series, Volume,. Of twenty-seven different regimental-sized units between 1775 and 1783 Brandywine Creek is a historical in! Losses would render a unit combat ineffective and at its best the loss of 10 irreplaceable cannon a! Of all combat veterans from any War is a meaningful American tradition skirmishers in front their! An expected British attack moving from west to east across Brandywine Creek, Washington mistakenly believed that his Army all! Assigned to the 9th Pennsylvania clad troops separated from his division ’ s 3rd Pennsylvania Brigade in Gen....