Register (ACFR) issues a regulation granting it official legal status. 0000002459 00000 n 0000003105 00000 n 1999, pp. State agencies often possess scientific data and valuable expertise on the status and distribution of endangered, threatened, and candidate species of wildlife and plants. In the last 110 years, approximately 31 percent of coastal plain wetlands have been lost. Also, more people will likely lead to an increase in hazardous situations, especially if take is allowed during nene breeding season because nene are ground-nesting birds. Instead, State law requires the issuance of a temporary license for the take of endangered and threatened animal species, if the activity otherwise prohibited is: (1) For scientific purposes or to enhance the propagation or survival of the affected species (HRS 195D-4(f)); or (2) incidental to an otherwise lawful activity (HRS 195D-4(g)). Hazing and other persistent deterrence actions are management strategies that may be used to address wildlife conflict issues. 1988). Recovery may be achieved without all of the criteria in a recovery plan being fully met. 1999). Therefore, inadequate nutrition due to the lack of suitable foraging opportunities in and around current breeding areas, particularly at higher elevations on Maui and Hawaii Island, coupled with the loss of lowland breeding areas across its range, is expected to continue into the foreseeable future as a threat to the nene. The Coordinating Group on Alien Pest Species (CGAPS), a partnership of managers from Federal, State, County, and private agencies and organizations involved in invasive species work in Hawaii, was formed in 1995, in an effort to coordinate policy and funding decisions, improve communication, increase collaboration, and promote public awareness (CGAPS 2009). Cattle egrets and barn owls were both introduced into Hawaii in the late 1950s, in an attempt to address agricultural pests on farms and ranches. 12/31/2020, by the Council on Environmental Quality Thus, we do not consider disease to be a current threat, although novel diseases such as West Nile virus could become a threat if introduced to Hawaii in the future. For more details, please see Intentional Harassment Not Likely to Cause Mortality or Direct Injury and Justification under 4(d) Rule, below, and our responses to comments (2) and (5). 2015, pp. Flooding and volcanic activity are threats to nene; however, neither of these threats is likely to occur across the nene's range in a single event. We have determined that the nene is no longer at risk of extinction and, therefore, does not meet the definition of endangered, but is still affected by the following current and ongoing threats to the extent that the species meets the definition of a threatened species under the Act: Environmental effects from climate change are likely to exacerbate the impacts of drought, hurricanes, and flooding associated with storms and hurricanes, as well as causing flooding of portions of nene habitat due to sea-level rise. 2018, pp. 690-694). 0000008653 00000 n For example, nene are known to use a variety of human-modified areas including wind farms, airports, resorts, golf courses, agricultural operations, residential areas, parks, public recreation areas, and transportation routes. This rule finalizes the reclassification of the nene from an endangered species to a threatened species. 324-328). 2004, p. 117). Predation by introduced mammals continues to be a major factor limiting nene breeding success and survival. The HDLNR noted that their 2017 count includes the most recent translocation efforts to Kauai and Maui. For example, genetic variation can occur over time when closely associated subpopulations occupy habitats with varying physical and biological elements within the same geographic area (Kristensen et al. ABC has over 8,500 members, with offices in Please also see our response to comments (2), (5), and (24). Further, the human dimensions side of nene acceptance deserves immediate Service emphasis (i.e., outreach) to help broaden support for nene. A condition known as “hairy-down” caused by a recessive gene, which creates a cottony appearance and impairs cold resistance in goslings, has been observed in captive and wild nene (USFWS 2004, pp. The numerous sightings and four confirmed individuals have led to the perception that mongoose are now established on Kauai. Biological Invasions 21: 1557-1566. Survival data from 1960 through 1990 for released nene on the island of Hawaii showed that the highest mortality rate was found among newly released goslings during drought years. These include the Hawaiian Coot ('alae ke'oke'o), Hawaiian Duck (koloa maoli), Hawaiian Stilt (ae'o), Hawaiian Gallinule (Moorhen) ('alae 'ula), and Hawaiian Goose (nēnē). With regard to threatened wildlife, a permit may be issued for the following purposes: Scientific purposes, to enhance propagation or survival, for economic hardship, for zoological exhibition, for educational purposes, for incidental taking, or for special purposes consistent with the purposes of the Act. 2017, in litt. Each document posted on the site includes a link to the 1990, p. 42). Populations on Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii are exhibiting a stable or increasing trend, while the nene population on Molokai is experiencing a fluctuation in population numbers. Between 1989 and 1999, lack of adequate food or water also appeared to be a factor limiting nene recruitment in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (Rave et al. 180-181; Cuddihy and Stone 1990, p. 74; D'Antonio and Vitousek 1992, p. 73; Vitousek et al. We note that the court in Desert Survivors v. Department of the Interior, No. This bill is a significant step toward optimizing biosecurity capacity in the State, but its effectiveness into the future will be dependent on adequate funding. For the purposes of this paragraph (d): (i) Nene means the Hawaiian goose (Branta sandvicensis). Hawaii Volcanoes National Park protects 330,086 ac (133,581 ha) of public land on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the southeastern side of Hawaii Island (NPS 2017, p. 3). Recovery efforts initially focused on the establishment of populations, with the majority of releases of captive-bred nene at high-elevation sanctuaries (above 5,000 ft (1,524 m)) on the islands of Maui and Hawaii. In 2014, a pair of nene arrived on Oahu, nested at James Campbell NWR, and produced three offspring. The Act's definition of a “threatened species” is any species which is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range (16 U.S.C. Our Response: We agree that it is important to track genetic diversity and implement conservation efforts that enable nene populations across the species' range to maximize genetic diversity. We also concur that low genetic variation and inbreeding, although threats, are not the dominating factors limiting nene population numbers. Protection of these species is under the authority of Hawaii's DLNR, and under administrative rule (Hawaii Administrative Rules (HAR) 13-124-11). (3) Exceptions from prohibitions. We also anticipate continued collaboration with State and private partners. These activities are intended to encourage support for the occurrence of nene in areas with land use practices compatible with the conservation of nene, and to redirect nene away from areas that do not support the conservation of the species. 0000001391 00000 n We also contacted appropriate Federal and State agencies, scientific experts, Native Hawaiian organizations, and other interested parties and invited them to comment on the proposal. Mowing, grazing, and irrigating grass can improve its attractiveness to geese by increasing the protein content (Sedinger and Raveling 1984, p. 302; Woog and Black 2001, pp. Reduced funding beginning in 2009 restricted State funding support of HISC, resulting in a serious setback of conservation efforts (HISC 2009, in litt. Our Response: We agree that additional outreach regarding the status of nene and associated current issues would further advance the conservation of nene. On Oahu, a total of 42 WTGs are in operation at Kawailoa Wind Power (30 WTGs) and Kahuku Wind Power (12 WTGs), and an additional 9 to 10 WTGs are proposed at the Na Pua Makani project in the Kahuku area. Some subpopulations may potentially be affected in the future by habitat changes resulting from the effects of climate change such as increases in drought, hurricanes, or sea-level rise (Factor A) and nene may potentially be affected in the future by introduction of diseases such as West Nile virus (Factor C).