For an in depth description of the working relationship between Wright and Niedecken in connection with the Robie House, see "Frank Lloyd Wright and George Mann Niedecken: Prairie School Collaborators," Robertson, Cheryl, Milwaukee Art Museum and the Museum of Our National Heritage, 1999. It was designated a National Historic Landmark on November 27, 1963,[5] and was on the first National Register of Historic Places list of October 15, 1966. After major structural steel restoration, exterior brick work, and installation of modern mechanical systems, the restoration focused on the interiors elements, such as woodwork, glass, and furniture. The Robie House’s influence on American architecture was immediate and undeniable. [18] David Lee Taylor, president of Taylor-Critchfield Company, an advertising agency, bought the house and all of its Wright-designed contents in December 1911. The billiards and playroom open into a small passage and doors near the center of the building to an enclosed garden on the south side of the building. Typical of Wright's Prairie houses, he designed not only the house, but all of the interiors, the windows, lighting, rugs, furniture and textiles. These offers were a turning point in the effort to save the Robie house since the three properties provided the Seminary with sufficient land for the dormitory they sought to build.[24]. In contrast to the home’s architectural staying power, Robie’s tenure in his home was short-lived. Soffit lighting running the length of the north and south sides of the living and dining rooms, as well as soffit lighting in the prows of the living and dining rooms, are covered with Wright-designed wooden grilles, backed with translucent colored glass diffusers. Quiz. "Conserving a Masterpiece: The Frederick C. Robie House," Frank Lloyd Wright Quarterly, pp. The Robie House, is a perfect manifestation of his “Prairie Style”. [46] The final decision on inclusion on the list will be made by the World Heritage Committee, composed of representatives from 21 nations and advised by the International Council on Monuments and Sites. [38] Miniature cantilevers can also be found in the shelves of the built-in dining room buffet and a food preparation island in the kitchen. [8] At the time that he commissioned Wright to design his home, Robie was only 28 years old and the assistant manager of the Excelsior Supply Company, a company on the South Side of Chicago owned and managed by his father. Id., pp. After revised proposals,[47] the properties were inscribed on the World Heritage List under the title "The 20th-Century Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright" in July 2019. In this house Wright blends the sonorous long lines of the machinelike form with a rich decorative effect that is ages old. The 20th-Century Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright, U.S. National Register of Historic Places, University of Chicago Booth School of Business, "The 20th-Century Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright", http://gowright.org/restoration-project.html, "The Robie House, a Frank Lloyd Wright masterpiece, is again a full-fledged architectural symphony after meticulous restoration", National Register of Historic Places Inventory—Nomination Form, Frederick C. Robie House, Smart Museum of Art On-Line Database Project, Dunlap, “Work Is Set to Begin On the Robie House,”, DOI Secretary Kempthorne Selects New U.S. World Heritage Tentative List, National Park Service, S. C. Johnson and Son, Inc., Administration Building and Research Tower, Frank Lloyd Wright Buildings, Tentative Lists Database, World Heritage, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, U.S. Department of the Interior, Press Release, Salazar Proposes Poverty Point, Frank Lloyd Wright Buildings for World Heritage List Nominations, "Eight Buildings Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright Nominated to the UNESCO World Heritage List", "The proud history of architecture in Illinois", Frank Lloyd Wright Preservation Trust: Robie House, Drawings, photos and data pages in the Library of Congress Historic American Buildings Survey, Society of Architectural Historians SAH ARCHIPEDIA entry on Robie House. [36] One of the most striking pieces of the furniture designed by Wright for the Robie House is a sofa with extended armrests, echoing the cantilevers of the exterior roof of the building, which effectively create side tables on each side of the sofa. Street parking on the University of Chicago Campus is extremely limited, we recommend giving yourself ample time to find parking before your tour. Prior to its use as the Adlai E. Stevenson Institute of International Affairs, the Robie House was partially restored between 1965 and 1967 under the direction of. Although later drawings of the Robie House show a date of 1906, Wright could not have started the design for the building earlier than the spring of 1908 because Robie had actually purchased the property only in May of that year. The lots to the south were vacant and afforded uninterrupted views to the Midway Plaisance parkland, one of the sites of the World's Columbian Exposition. In 1941, a graduate student at the Illinois Institute of Technology accidentally discovered that the Seminary was moving ahead with a plan to demolish the Robie House and informed his instructors, including Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Many design critics regard the Robie House as America’s first unique architectural style. Hoffman, p. 94. [39] According to the Historical American Buildings Survey, the city of Chicago's Commission on Chicago Architectural Landmarks stated: "The bold interplay of horizontal planes about the chimney mass, and the structurally expressive piers and windows, established a new form of domestic design. Evoke the spirit of the master through furniture, glassware, textiles, lighting, and wallpapers. The living and dining rooms flow into one another along the south side of the building and open through a series of twelve French doors containing art glass panels to an exterior balcony running the length of the south side of the building that overlooks the enclosed garden. [citation needed]. It is the epitome of Wright’s Prairie School, and a house that seems to grow out of its Midwestern landscape. At the time Robie House was commissioned in 1908, the lots surrounding the house's site were mostly vacant except for the lots immediately to the north on Woodlawn Avenue, which were filled with large homes. A guest room, the kitchen, and servants’ quarters are situated to the north of the living and dining area. The rectangle on the northeast portion of the site, called "the minor vessel," contains the more functional and service-related rooms of the house. To further emphasize the horizontal of the bricks, the horizontal joints were filled with a cream-colored mortar and the small vertical joints were filled with brick-colored mortar. Further east are a coat closet and back stairway, the boiler room, laundry room, and coal storage room, followed by a small workshop, half bath, and a three-car garage. [43], In 2008, the U.S. National Park Service submitted the Robie house, along with nine other Frank Lloyd Wright properties, to a tentative list for World Heritage Status. This style is characterized by a dominating horizontal axis, banded windows, and a spacious and open interior plan. The design drawings for the Robie House no longer exist although it is not known whether Wright discarded the drawings or they were destroyed in the Taliesin fire of 1914. 10-19, vol. As with all Prairie houses, Wright designed the light fixtures for the Robie House. On the second floor of the minor vessel is a guest bedroom above the entrance hall and an adjoining full bath. To the east of the site and across a municipal service alley, a French Provincial style house for Nobel prize winning physicist Albert A. Michelson was built around 1923. [29] The Trust follows guidelines developed by the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties. [41], In 1956, The Archectural Record selected the Robie House as "one of the seven most notable residences ever built in America. See more ideas about robie house, frank lloyd wright, frank lloyd wright robie house. On the second floor living and dining rooms, spherical globes within wooden squares are integrated into the ceiling trim, further tying the two spaces together visually. Robie's financial situation following his father's death may be the explanation for why the entire house was not furnished with furniture of Wright's designs. Under the 1935 Historic Sites Act, the Robie House was named a National Historic Landmark in 1963, and, after passage of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, it was again so designated in 1971. Completed in 1910, the structure is the culmination of Wright’s modern design innovations that came to be called the Prairie style. As Wright wrote in 1910, "it is quite impos… [20] Consequently, Robie House suffered major interior damage, including the destruction of nearly all the characteristically gold wall sconces. Passing through the doorway, one enters a compressed foyer and then immediately ascends stairs into the spectacle of the second-story living room and dining area, which together compose a 60-foot-long interior space. [49]. 32-33. The entire space is marked by a rectangular ceiling with a rectangular inset punctuated by regular bands of wood molding and globe lamps. Frank Lloyd Wright Preservation Trust. As a result, the exterior walls have little structural function, and thus are filled with doors and windows containing 174 art glass panels in 29 different designs. 19, no. The Frederick C. Robie House is a U.S. National Historic Landmark now on the campus of the University of Chicago in the South Side neighborhood of Hyde Park in Chicago, Illinois. Situated in Hyde Park, in Chicago’s South Side, it was built in 1910, seventeen years after Wright first established his practice, and was originally commissioned by the businessman Frederick C Robie and his family. "[39] Because the house's components are so well designed and coordinated, it is considered to be a quintessential example of Wright's Prairie School architecture and the "measuring stick" against which all other Prairie School buildings are compared. The planter urns, copings, lintels, sills and other exterior trimwork are of Bedford limestone. The Robie House is located at the corner of Woodlawn Avenue and 58th Street. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Wright’s solution to the confined, box-like interiors of traditional houses was the open floor plan.