It is said that American legend Paul Bunyan used the Washington hawthorn… A reasonable number is estimated to be 200 species.[9]. [6][8] First Nations people of western Canada used the thorns for durable fish hooks and minor skin surgeries. English hawthorn C. laevigata. The Washington hawthorn (C. phaenopyrum) is famous for its red autumn colour and its abundant clusters of orange-red fruits that persist on the twigs well into winter; it is somewhat susceptible to rust but is otherwise a durable and much-used ornamental. [38] Uncommon forms can be grafted onto seedlings of other species. A closely related species, Crataegus cuneata (Japanese hawthorn, called sanzashi in Japanese) is used in a similar manner. The flowers are double or single and range from white to pink to red; they smother the branches and add a … Serbian folklore that spread across Balkan notes that hawthorn (Serbian глог or glog) is essential to kill vampires, and stakes used for their slaying must be made from the wood of the thorn tree. Plants: medicine plants: words", "Interaction Study between Digoxin and a Preparation of Hawthorn (, "Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) progression", "BIVŠI MINISTAR POLICIJE SRBIJE LOVI VAMPIRE! The review indicated the need for further study of the best dosages and concluded that although "many different theoretical interactions between Crataegus and orthodox medications have been postulated ... none have [yet] been substantiated. Crataegus phaenopyrum, commonly called Washington hawthorn, is native to Missouri where it is primarily found in open ground, thickets and wood margins in the Ozark region of the state (Steyermark).It is noted for its attractive flowers and foliage, bright red fruits and fall color. Since the different varieties closely resemble each other, it's hard to distinguish one from the other. Avoid watering hawthorn while the tree is blooming. [10] In the southern United States, fruits of three native species are collectively known as mayhaws and are made into jellies which are considered a delicacy. Though classified as small trees, they have a tendency to send up suckers, which leads to multiple trunks or creates a large shrub if not pruned. Some botanists in the past recognised 1000 or more species,[39] many of which are apomictic microspecies. In the home garden, hawthorn attracts butterflies and a number of songbirds, including cedar waxwings, bluejays and northern flickers. Zones: 5-8. The most common type of bark is smooth grey in young individuals, developing shallow longitudinal fissures with narrow ridges in older trees. The 4 cm fruits of the species Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn) are tart, bright red, and resemble small crabapple fruits. The wood of some Crataegus species is hard and resistant to rot. In spring, the tree is covered with clusters of flowers in shades of white or pink, depending on the variety. [22] They are grown and enjoyed for their display of flowers. [41][42][43] The sections are: Genus of flowering plants in the rose family Rosaceae. The Hawthorn is an attractive large shrub or small tree. Hawthorn Hawthorn trees have many positiveness and negatives, but some of the biggest positives are their full-figure shape, they need little pruning and beautiful blooms in spring. First noted scientifically in 1883, the tree received its name from its point of origin when introduced to Pennsylvania from Washington, becoming known as the Washington thorn because of its prominent thorns. [29] This warning persists to modern times; it has been questioned by folklorist Bob Curran whether the ill luck of the DeLorean Motor Company was associated with the destruction of a fairy thorn to make way for a production facility. [15], Several species of hawthorn have been used in traditional medicine. [8], The Scots saying "Ne'er cast a cloot til Mey's oot" conveys a warning not to shed any cloots (clothes) before the summer has fully arrived and the Mayflowers (hawthorn blossoms) are in full bloom. Hawthorne Trees have a variety of flowers. Fertilizer isn't required, but if growth appears sparse, apply a slow-release fertilizer in autumn. [10] The leaves are edible, and if picked in spring when still young, are tender enough to be used in salads. Fully hardy. I remember the kitchen as being large and airy. Hawthorn Trees 1 Hawthorn Trees 2 Hawthorn Trees, Facts & Detailed Information on the Hawthorn Tree. The hawthorn is an species of sturdy tree that is widespread throughout the Western world. The genus is classified into sections which are further divided into series. There are so many different types of hawthorn trees that it’s difficult to choose just one. Seeds require stratification and take one or two years to germinate. The clusters of flowers, often colorful fruits, and manageable size endear hawthorns to landscapers, and many varieties appear in cultivation, including some specially bred for landscape use. The mixture of tejocote paste, sugar, and chili powder produces a popular Mexican candy called rielitos, which is manufactured by several brands. In spring small white or in rarer cases pink or red flowers appear in clusters, followed by small red apple-shaped fruit in autumn. The native Crataegus monogyna has white flowers, as do a number of other varieties, but there are also red and pink flowering Hawthorn trees to choose from. [13] A 2010 review[14] concluded that "Crataegus [hawthorn] preparations hold significant potential as a useful remedy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease". Potted Tree Well-suited to clay soils. Bailey, L.H. Shelterbelt, landscape tree, hedgerow, living fence. [37] Seed germination is improved if the pyrenes that contain the seed are subjected to extensive drying at room temperature, before stratification. The hawthorn has been regarded as the emblem of hope, and its branches are stated to have been carried by the ancient Greeks in wedding processions, and to have been used by them to deck the altar of Hymenaios. The "haws" or fruits of the common hawthorn, C. monogyna, are edible. In some cases, horticultural oils are effective but must be used strictly according to label specifications. The generic epithet, Crataegus, is derived from the Greek kratos "strength" because of the great strength of the wood and akis "sharp", referring to the thorns of some species. All have excellent spring blossom displays, and most have attractive autumn fruitlet colours. Remove damaged or broken branches in late winter. Hawthorns form the genus Crataegus, and are a diverse range of hardy trees, adaptable to many situations - including urban and coastal planting. These flowers, known for their distinctive odor, yield to first green and then red berries that persist throughout winter. The gray or reddish-brown bark of the hawthorn tree provides texture to the garden, and some varieties turn a vibrate shade of orange-bronze in autumn. How to choose Hawthorn trees. Like aphids, scale is controlled by predators such as beetles, parasitic moths and lacewings. The name "hawthorn" was originally applied to the species native to northern Europe, especially the common hawthorn C. monogyna, and the unmodified name is often so used in Britain and Ireland. Robins sometimes line the branches in mid- to late winter, harvesting the fruits. Although hawthorn is relatively pest-resistant, the tree is sometimes bothered by aphids or scale. [12], A 2008 Cochrane Collaboration meta-analysis of previous studies concluded that evidence exists of "a significant benefit in symptom control and physiologic outcomes" for an extract of hawthorn used as an adjuvant in treating chronic heart failure. It was once said to heal the broken heart. M.H. The fruits, which are called 山楂 shān zhā in Chinese, are also used to produce jams, jellies, juices, alcoholic beverages, and other drinks; these could in turn be used in other dishes (for instance, many older recipes for Cantonese sweet and sour sauce call for shānzhā jam). [18] Patients taking digoxin should avoid taking hawthorn. The New Sunset Western Garden Book; Kathleen Norris Brenzel, editor. The legislation designating it as such was introduced by Sarah Lucille Turner, one of the first two women to serve in the Missouri House of Representatives. Like Washington hawthorn, single-seeded hawthorn grows as a shrub or small tree, and bears clusters of white blooms in late spring. It fits perfectly into an informal or rural garden, and it can also be clipped into a dense, secure hedge around your property. Avoid heavy pruning and excessive fertilization, which promote tender, susceptible new growth. [40][41] Series Montaninsulae has not yet been assigned to a section. The gray or reddish-brown bark of the hawthorn tree provides texture to the garden, and some varieties turn a vibrate shade of orange-bronze in autumn. Crataegus is a large genus of trees and shrubs, with many varieties suited to planting as ornamental trees, garden hedging and street planting. The original tree was destroyed in the sixteenth century during the English Reformation, but several cultivars have survived. Its beautiful flowers, sharp thorns and hedge-like qualities have made it popular throughout the ages. Other species (especially Crataegus laevigata) are used in herbal medicine where the plant is believed to strengthen cardiovascular function. Common in hedgerows, these shrubs and small trees are tough and hardy enough to thrive in a number of garden situations. [citation needed]. In the United Kingdom, they are sometimes used to make a jelly or homemade wine. May have anti-inflammatory properties. The vast majority of types have branches covered in thorns, which range from under and inch to 3 inches long and all produce pome fruits. The young leaves and flower buds, which are also edible, are known as "bread and cheese" in rural England. [7] The name haw, originally an Old English term for hedge (from the Anglo-Saxon term haguthorn, "a fence with thorns"),[8] also applies to the fruit.[9]. The Crimson Cloud Hawthorn is another great tree to put in your arsenal of small tough colorful landscape varieties. This unique sweet and flavorful fruit is delicious eaten fresh, dried, stewed, and made into candy. 3. Our Red Hawthorn Crimson Cloud are supplied at a height of between 1.00 and 2.4 metres in a 7-12 litre container, which means that the tree can be planted any time of the year and with better results than either bare-root or rootballed trees. Hawthorns are also used as food plants by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species, such as the small eggar moth, E. lanestris. The fruits, which resemble rosehips, stand out in a snowbound landscape. Green Hawthorn is a lower maintenance tree than most hawthorns as it is more disease resistant. Disease, pest, and problem resistance Although most grow to mature heights of 15 to 30 feet, some varieties are suitable for shrubs while others reach heights of 45 feet. In Celtic lore, the hawthorn plant was used commonly for inscriptions[26][citation needed] along with yew and apple. People born on the island are now called "haweaters". Botanical name: Crataegus. In its natural environment, hawthorn trees are an important source of sustenance for wildlife. Phipps, J.B., O'Kennon, R.J., Lance, R.W. 450-1100)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 00:33. Such trees can be seen in Vigo, Spain, and in the northwest of France (mainly in Brittany). Native to the UK, this hawthorn is perfect for attracting pollinators and birds come autumn, thanks to its spectacular blossom and red haws. [17], Overdose can cause cardiac arrhythmia and low blood pressure, while milder side effects include nausea and dizziness. The thorns are small sharp-tipped branches that arise either from other branches or from the trunk, and are typically 1–3 cm long (recorded as up to 11.5 cm (4.5 in) in one case[9]). After flowers in colors like white, pink, lavender, and red appear in the spring, small red or orange fruit will grow in the summer and often persist into late winter--a single tree … [30], The superstitious dread of harming hawthorn trees prevalent in the British Isles may also be connected to an old belief that hawthorns, and more especially 'lone thorns' (self-seeded specimens standing in isolation from other trees) originate from lightning or thunderbolts and give protection from lightning strikes.[31]. [11] The young leaves and flower buds, which are also edible, are known as "bread and cheese" in rural England. Water a young tree during dry weather, but after the first year or two, natural rainfall is adequate. Fireblight, most prevalent when hawthorn is planted near apple or pear orchards, often occurs when hot, dry weather is followed by humid conditions such as rain or hail. The Hawthorn Tree has fragrant white blossom in late spring and early summer, covering the tree in a mass of tiny white flowers. How Long Does It Take for a Kousa Sapling to Flower? The leaves of most species have lobed or serrated margins and are somewhat variable in shape. The relatively thornless hybrid Lavalle hawthorn (Crataegus x lavallei) has lustrous green leaves, large orange-red fruits, and bronze-red fall foliage. It's a medium-sized tree, 20 to 30 feet tall and 15 to 20 feet wide, suitable as a street or specimen tree. The supposition that the tree was the source of Jesus's crown of thorns doubtless gave rise around 1911 to the tradition among the French peasantry that it utters groans and cries on Good Friday, and probably also to the old popular superstition in Great Britain and Ireland that ill luck attended the uprooting of hawthorns. C. phaenopyrum, called W… Since the reign of King James I, it has been a Christmas custom to send a sprig of Glastonbury thorn flowers to the Sovereign, which is used to decorate the royal family's dinner table. [14], Phytochemicals found in hawthorn include tannins, flavonoids, oligomeric proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids. However, careful pruning of diseased wood is critical. Thorny, deciduous small tree or shrub, 6 to 30 feet tall 2. Color: Green foliage, white flowers, red fruit, insignificant fall color. About Hawthorn Trees A hawthorn tree is a hardy, fruit bearing, flower growing tree that has been known to live for up to 400 years. It's known for its lobed, green leaves and attractive bark (much like an apple tree), and the branches of most varieties are thorny. Petals are usually white, sometimes pink 5. Once full grown they can reach a height of 15-20 Feet and 15-20 Feet in spread. The fruits of North America's Crataegus greggiana are made into preserves. [21] Several cultivars of the Midland hawthorn C. laevigata have been selected for their pink or red flowers. Hawthorn is a versatile tree that thrives in full sunlight and any well-drained soil. Among the most commonly grown hawthorns are Russian hawthorn (Crataegus ambigua), English hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata), and Carriere hawthorn (Crategus carrierel). Cedar rusts and fireblight are potential problems but this species is more resistant to those diseases. Growing Requirements The Washington Hawthorn Tree does well or is tolerant in Well-Drained Clay, Loamy, Acidic, Alkaline soil. Native to eastern North America, hawthorn is a showy, small tree that breaks into clouds of white flowers in spring, followed by vivid fall color, and long-lasting red winter fruits. "Chip budding" has also been performed on hawthorn trunks to have branches of several varieties on the same tree. In nature, hawthorns are often associated with persimmon, eastern … [36], Although it is commonly stated that hawthorns can be propagated by cutting, this is difficult to achieve with rootless stem pieces. [23][24], The custom of employing the flowering branches for decorative purposes on 1 May is of very early origin, but since the adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1752, the tree has rarely been in full bloom in England before the second week of that month. Unless planting closely for a hedge, space trees 30 feet apart. Branches of Glastonbury thorn (C. monogyna 'Biflora',[9] sometimes called C. oxyacantha var. aronia, as well as other species) are known as zâlzâlak and eaten raw as a snack, or made into a jam known by the same name. Nekada se borio sa ZEMUNSKIM KLANOM, a sada drži glogov kolac u rukama", "Language of Flowers - Flower Meanings, Flower Sentiments", Bujarska-Borkowska, B. [9] The dried fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida (called shān zhā in Chinese) are used in traditional Chinese medicine, primarily as a digestive aid. Fireblight, a bacterial disease that afflicts a number of fruit trees, gives hawthorn a scorched appearance and can kill the tree if left untreated. Aphids are tiny, sap-sucking insects that gather in masses on the undersides of the leaves. She is an Oregon State University Master Gardener and Master Naturalist and holds a Master of Fine Arts in creative nonfiction writing. In the Scottish Highlands, the flowers may be seen as late as the middle of June. praecox), which flowers both in December and in spring, were formerly highly valued in England, on account of the legend that the tree was originally the staff of Joseph of Arimathea.[25]. Hawthorns are among the trees most recommended for water conservation landscapes. The oval red berries ripen a little earlier (than Washington hawthorn) in fall and contain a single seed (hence the name). 2. [32] 'When all fruit fails, welcome haws' was once a common expression in Ireland. Hawthorn blossom is usually unscented, or has a very mild scent. Hawthorn Trees - Crataegus Crataegus trees, also known as Hawthron trees, are widely planted for their delightful flowers which are often scented and appear in spring. [19][20], Many species and hybrids are used as ornamental and street trees. It is graft-compatible with Mespilus (medlar), and with pear, and makes a hardier rootstock than quince, but the thorny suckering habit of the hawthorn can be problematic. ; Bailey, E.Z. Spectacular small tree with intense red double flowers & excellent autumn colour Lovely year-round hues and short stature makes this an excellent choice for a small garden. During the British Agricultural Revolution in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, hawthorn saplings were mass propagated in nurseries to create the new field boundaries required by the Inclosure Acts. Downy, or red, hawthorn (C. mollis) has whitish hairs on young twigs and downy leaves. Crataegus crus-galli var. Chinese Haw is easy to grow and hardy. The name is now also applied to the entire genus and to the related Asian genus Rhaphiolepis. Crataegus trees can become around 500 years old and their trunks thicken quite slowly. This species tends to have few to no thorns. They produce attractive white blooms in clusters, in late spring to early summer. Here are a few to consider: 1. Red Hawthorn, C. columbiana, which may be seen in some areas of the B.C. Leaves 3 to 7-lobed, 1-2 inches long and nearly as broad, resemble mittens or paws 3. The berries are called haws, are red or black and are known for many medicinal uses. coast, is now either lumped in C. douglasii or C. chrysocarpa var. Lavalle hawthorn grows in … This native American tree is ideal for a smaller garden, or for background in a larger one. They are stuffed in the piñatas broken during the traditional pre-Christmas celebration known as Las Posadas. Plants prefer full sun to part shade and water. The Washington Hawthorn tree is an attractive small tree, growing to about 30 feet tall. Each flower produces a seed, and from the seed, … CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of October 2020 (. Fruit is a round, crimson berry that often persists into late winter 6. They have year round interest with the flowers, but also in fall and winter because of the berries (which songbirds love). Noteworthy Characteristics. [8] In rural North America, it was prized for use as tool handles and fence posts. The products used are often derived from C. monogyna, C. laevigata, or related Crataegus species, "collectively known as hawthorn", not necessarily distinguishing between these species. Many species of Hawthorn make excellent bonsai trees. Don't baby a hawthorn tree, as too much water and fertilizer promotes succulent growth that is susceptible to a disease called fireblight, which can kill entire branches very rapidly. The common hawthorn is extensively used in Europe as a hedge plant. Today, the hawthorn is renowned for its sturdy nature and beauty, but also its functionality as a border hedge. [27], In Gaelic folklore, hawthorn (in Scottish Gaelic, sgitheach and in Irish, sceach) 'marks the entrance to the otherworld' and is strongly associated with the fairies. The Washington Hawthorn Tree grows well in USDA Hardiness Zones 4-7. Scale isn't always recognized as an insect, as the pests are covered by waxy shells that look like yellow, black or brown bumps. Distribution of Suksdorf Hawthorn from USDA–note it only occurs in the SW corner of BC. Height/Spread: Upright spreading habit, 15-20 feet tall and wide. In the United Kingdom, they are sometimes used to make a jelly or homemade wine. Hawthorn berry may have anti-inflammatory properties that … Small, yellow or red apple-like fruit, often called thorn apples or haws, ripen in autumn. Red Sun Chinese Hawthorn Know in China as Shan Zha, this attractive small tree displays large clusters of white flowers followed by abundant, round, large, 1" diameter fruit which turn red when ripe. Hawthorn trees feature more than one season of interest. The leaves are edible, and if picked in spring when still young, are tender enough to be used in salads. Hawthorn. It has a lovely orange-red fall color and three-inch clusters of white flowers that bloom in spring. List of hawthorn species with yellow fruit, List of hawthorn species with black fruit, "FirstVoices- Ktunaxa. (2003). 1976. In South Korea, a liquor called sansachun (산사춘) is made from the fruits. [citation needed], Hawthorn can be used as a rootstock in the practice of grafting.