But Selim was an alcoholic and HÃ¼rrem's other son, Bayezid, had shown far greater military ability. M.-ʿA. 529-38, G. Hermann, “Ein Erlass Tahmasps I. von 934/1528,” ZDMG 139, 1989, pp. and tr. , Next, Suleiman tried to exploit the disloyalty of Tahmasp's brother Alqas Mirza, who was governor of the frontier province of Shirvan. While later rulers, in particular ʿAbbās the Great, dealt with these questions of corporate sovereignty by simply eliminating any possible counterclaims from within the family, Ṭahmāsp looked for a long-term solution that would avoid having to harm or physically immobilize male family members (with the exception of one son, Esmāʿil Mirzā). By this treaty historical Armenia and Georgia were divided equally between the two, the Ottoman Empire obtained most of Iraq, including Baghdad, which gave them access to the Persian Gulf, while the Persians retained their former capital Tabriz and all their other north-western territories in the Caucasus (Dagestan, Azerbaijan) and as they were prior to the wars. into German by Paul Horn, “Die Denkwurdigkeiten des Shah Ṭahmāsp I. von Persien,” ZDMG 44, 1890, pp. Humayun reluctantly agreed and also gave Tahmasp the strategically important city of Kandahar in exchange for Iranian military assistance against the heirs of Sher Khan and his own rebellious brothers. 349-437; locations of published documents for this period are available in R. Schimkoreit’s Regesten publizierter safawidischer Herrscherurkunden, Berlin, 1982, pp. Hist. Abbas the Great or Abbas I of Persia (Persian: Ø´Ø§Ù Ø¹Ø¨Ø§Ø³ Ø¨Ø²Ø±Ú¯ â; 27 January 1571 â 19 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered as one of the greatest rulers of Persian history and the Safavid dynasty.He was the third son of Shah Mohammad Khodabanda. The silk trade, over which the government held a monopoly, was a primary source of revenue. As non-Turkmen converts to Islam, these Circassian and Georgian (see GEORGIA, especially vii and viii) ḡolāmān were unfettered by clan loyalties and kinship obligations, which was an attractive feature for a ruler like Ṭahmāsp whose childhood and upbringing had been deeply affected by Qezelbāš tribal politics. R. Jaʿfariān, Vol. tr. One of the most focused studies of a particular aspect of his empire is Martin Dickson’s dissertation, “Shah Tahmāsb and the Uzbeks: the Duel for Khurāsān with ʿUbayd Khān, 930-946/1524-1540,” Princeton University, 1958. Nevertheless, one court faction supported Ismail, while another backed Haydar Mirza Safavi, the son of a Georgian. During the tenth century there were two distinguished Jewish families in Baghdad, *Netira and Aaron. A power struggle between him and Mohammad Mosaddegh led to the latter's ouster in â¦ Principally, we have the shah’s own memoirs, completed in 1561, as Taḏkera-ye Šāh Ṭahmāsp; ed. See also M. Szuppe, “Palais et jardins: le complexe royal des premiers safavides à Qazvin, milieu XVIᵉ-début XVIIᵉ siècles,” in Sites et monuments disparus d’après les temoignages de voyageurs, ed. The shah iran. However, the earliest known literary evidence of the hookah, anywhere, comes in a quatrain by AhlÄ« Shirazi (d. 1535), a Persian poet, referring to the use of the á¸¡alyÄn (FalsafÄ«, II, p. 277; SemsÄr, 1963, p. 15), thus dating its use at least as early as the time of the Shah á¹¬ahmÄsp I. Persian Miniature of âMadjnun among the beast âthat is a depiction of the legend of Layli and Madjnun ,a Persian romance versified by Nezami of Gandja in 1188.A.D. Parts of the Šāh-nāma-ye Šāh Ṭahmāsp have been reproduced by S. C. Welch and M. Dickson in The Houghton Shahnameh, Cambridge, 1981. A number of studies have been offered on architecture and urban dynamics under Shah Ṭahmāsp. M. Minovi, Tehran, 1964. Ṭahmāsp writes “After realizing this, I was very anxious, and it occurred to me again then that a flash of light from God, may His name be exalted, had burst forth and made itself apparent” (Horn, 1890, p. 637). The shah paid absolute patronage and attention to these groups.” (Budāq Monši Qazvini, p. 144). This would be the starting point for the corps of ḡolāmān-e ḵāṣṣa-ye-e šarifa, or royal slaves, who would dominate the Safavid military in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. As Alexander H. Morton has indicated in his study of the Venetian Michel Membré’s travel account, the ritualistic bastinado (čub-e ṭariq) of penitent Qezelbāš amirs by a high-ranking Turkmen Sufi (ḵalifat al-ḵolafā), and other “un-Islamic” ceremonies, continued to be practiced in various Turkmen mystical gatherings with the shah in attendance. Shortly before his death in February 1588, he entrusted the collection and arrangement of his literary remains to the poet and literary biographer Taqi-al-Din KÄÅ¡Äni. Ṭahmāsp concludes how “it is known that I saw these types of miracles (nawʿ-e ʿajābāt) and in this way, the Qurʾānic verse (2:137) had run off my tongue.” Not long afterwards, Ṭahmāsp managed to defeat the largest Ottoman invasion to date by Sultan Solaymān (Horn, pp. The Ottomans, further, gave permission for Persian pilgrims to go to the holy places of Mecca and Medina as well as to the Shia sites of pilgrimages in Iraq. He also included a list of Qurʾān verses and Hadiths supporting the proofs of the eternality and predestination of the family of the Prophet (ahl-e bayt). Navāʾi, Šāh Ṭahmāsp-e ṣafavi: Majmuʿa-ye asnād va mokātebāt-e tāriki, hamrāh bā yād-dāšthā-ye tafṣil, Tehran, 1971, and D. T¯ābetiān, Asnād va nāmahā-ye tāriki-ye dawra-ye ṣafaviya, Tehran, 1964. However, a Persian poet refers to the use of the á¸¡alyÄn, thus dating its use at least as early as the time of the Shah á¹¬ahmÄsp I. 45-73; R. Islam, Indo-Persian Relations: A Study of the Political and Diplomatic Relations Between the Mughal Empire and Iran, Tehran, 1970, pp. The only biographies of Shah Ṭahmāsp by western scholars are: Clement Huart, “Ṭahmāsp I,” EI¹, IV, 1934, p. 615; R. M. Savory, “Ṭahmāsp I,” EI¹, IV, 1998, pp, 108-10, and Browne, Lit. 232-51, and A. H. Morton, “The Ardabil Shrine in the Reign of Shah Tahmasp,” Iran 12, 1974, pp. 493-503. Published documents (Papazian, nos. Also worthy of note are the relevant chapters in Andrew Newman, Safavid Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, London, 2006, as well as Kathryn Babayan’s chapter on Shah Ṭahmāsp, “Mirroring the Safavi Past: Shah Tahmasp’s Break with His Messiah Father,” in her Mystics, Monarchs, and Messiahs: Cultural Landscapes of Early Modern Iran, Cambridge, Mass., 2002, pp. Cultural Patron. Herat was able to weather the Uzbek siege for a year before ʿObayd-Allāh decided to disengage and retreat in October 1533. 81 and 84-98.  He was only 10 years old when he succeeded his father Shah Ismail, the founder of Safavid rule in Iran. The son of Ḡiāṯ-al-Din b. Homām-al-Din Ḵᵛāndamir, Amir Maḥmud, described this concert in Herat with little left for the imagination: “Fair women, amiable and meek, expert in rendering service, stood in every corner like virgins of paradise in that assembly of heavenly dignity. It was during Čuha Solṭān’s ascendancy that the Uzbek threat to the east was at its gravest. Perhaps the greatest of the ghazal writers was Jamāl-al-Din Moḥammad b. Badr-al-Din of Shiraz (d. 1590-91) who wrote under the nom de plume of ʿOrfi.  From that time, as soon as the Ottomans would launch a European campaign, they would be attacked by the Iranians on their eastern frontier, forcing Suleiman to return speedily to his capital. Shah Ṭahmāsp and Ḥosayn Khan Šāmlu were able to defeat and drive the Ottomans temporarily out of western Azerbaijan, but news of yet another Uzbek invasion forced the young shah’s attention eastward. A. Newman, Leiden, 2003, pp. For Qazvin, see Ehsan Echraqi [Eḥsān Ešrāqi], “Le Dār al-Salṭana de Qazvin, deuxième capitale des Safavides,” in Safavid Persia: The History and Politics of an Islamic Society, ed. R. Homāyun-Farroḵ, Tehran, 1969. On account of the pleasure-exciting songs of the singers, Venus was concealed (in shame) in the sheet of the sky and on account of the music of the musicians, grieved hearts became gladdened; and on account of the palatable foods and pleasant drinks the unsettling hunger in the hearts of beggars vanished like the desire for food in the hearts of rich persons. 171-206; H. Horst “Zwei Erlasse Shah Ṭahmāsp I,” ZDMG 110, 1960, pp. Khan Parwar Khanum, a sister of Zali Beg Gorji, a Georgian; Huri Khan Khanum, daughter of the Governor of. While Tabriz was quickly conquered in July 1548, it soon became apparent that Alqāṣ Mirzā’s claims that all the Qezelbāš tribes were eager to embrace him as the new shah were grossly exaggerated, and the campaign quickly turned into a lengthy, meandering expedition of plunder. Deemed too old and no longer able to address these internal and external threats, Div Solṭān was executed on 5 July 1527 by order of the shah, and control of the Safavid Empire was transferred to the sole remaining member of the Qezelbāš triumvirate, Čuha Solṭān Takkalu. Nonetheless, Ṭahmāsp’s “spiritual repentance” is presented in conventional historiography as a metaphor for Safavid Persia’s transition to Twelver Shiʿite orthodoxy from what Michel Mazzaoui termed “Folk Islam,” or more specifically an ad hoc fusion of rituals and liturgies influenced by a variety of traditions: mainstream Sunnism, Imami Shiʿism, Neẓāri Ismaʿilism, Neoplatonic theosophy, militant ḥorufi millenarianism (see HORUFISM), and Turkmen shamanism. 233-50, as well as the relevant pages from his Persien auf dem Weg in die Neuzeit: Iranische Geschichte von 1350-1750, Beirut, 1989. Introduction. The young Shah á¹¬ahmÄsp I, the son of IsmÄÊ¿Ä«l, retook Baghdad in 1529 and gave it to Muá¸¥ammad Sultan Khan TakkalÅ«. POSSIBLY USEFUL Generally because of ottoman country was an empire and also the ottomans sultans had great tolerent towards to non turkish people a lot of race lived under the rule of ottomans. Fortunately, we have a contemporary text providing a prosopography of these individuals with Qāżi Aḥmad b. Šaraf-al-Din Qomi’s Golestān-e honar (or Taḏkera-ye ḵošnevisān wa naqqāšān), which was translated by Vladimir Minorsky (see Qāzi Aḥmad, tr. Die Denkwürdigkeiten Schâh Tahmâsp's des Ersten von Persien (1515-1576), aus dem Originaltext, zum ersten Male übersetzt und mit Erläuterungen versehen von Paul Horn by á¹¬ahmÄsp ( Book ) 1 edition published in 1891 in German and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide That the shah would be committed to building a court that was intimately familiar with urban Persian culture, both literary and artistic, should be of no surprise; his own memoirs, the Tadkera-e Šāh Ṭahmāsp, is littered with quotations from Hafez, Sa’di, and Neẓāmi, as well as a number of Turkish verses. Homāyun-Farroḵ, 1969). 245-91; Memoirs of Shah Tahmasp, ed. 81-104, and Andrew Newman, “The Myth of the Clerical Migration to Safavid Iran: Arab Shiite Opposition to ʿAlī al-Karakī and Safawid Shiism,” Die Welt des Islams 33, 1993, pp. It would be a divination from one of Jāmi’s (d. 1492) ḡazals, or lyrical poems, that convinced the shah to rebuild the mausoleum of the famous Timurid poet in Herat, ironically first destroyed by the shah himself some years earlier after hearing that Jāmi had supposedly been an anti-Shiʿite (Dickson, 1958, p. 190). M.-R. Nāṣeri and K. Haneda, Tehran, 2000. Karaki’s treatises on taxes, public prayer, the role of the Imam, and other questions were reflective of a theologian who had little difficulty rationalizing a legitimate Shiʿite state during the absence of the Twelfth Imam, or the Greater Occultation (see ḠAYBA). N. Ahmad and I. H. Siddiqui, II, Jaipur, 2000, pp. Insights into Ṭahmāsp’s treatment of the city of Herat can be found in M. Szuppe, Entre Timourides, Uzbeks et Safavides: Questions d’histoire politique et sociale de Hérat dans la première moitié du XVIᵉ siècle, Paris, 1992, and “Les résidences princières de Herat: problèmes de continuité fonctionnelle entre les époques timouride et safavide (1ère moitié du XVIe siècle),” in Étudessafavides, ed. Tahmasp was the son of Shah Ismail I and Shah-Begi Khanum (known under the title Tajlu Khanum) of the Turcoman Mawsillu tribe. "On the latter point also the discussion got rather lively, and I would refer the reader to my work entitled NajÄtu'r-rashÄ«d [Vide note 2, p. 104], in which the subject is briefly discussed. The tobacco smoked is referred to as shisha (sheesha) in the United Kingdom, United States and Canada. After the attainment of these materials of sensual pleasures and material delicacies, cash money in gold and silver was submitted to [Homāyun] as presents” (Amir Maḥmud b. Ḡiāṯ -al-Din Ḵᵛāndamir, p. 214). As Hans Roemer (1986, p. 249) observed, there was no need to see a policy of “Persianization” in this move, but undoubtedly “the idea of a Turkmen state with its center at Tabriz and its fulcrum in eastern Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and northwestern Persia was abandoned.” The decision to replace Tabriz as the imperial center, a city that had historically been the hub of a number of Mongol and Turkmen dynasties such as the Il-khanids, the Qara Qoyunlus, and the Āq Qoyunlus, was concurrent with a decision by the shah to populate and staff his court and army with members of a new, non-Qezelbāš constituency. Given that the 52-year reign of Abu’l-Fatḥ Ṭahmāsp (posthumously referred to as ḵāqān-e jannat-makān) was the longest of all Safavid rulers, the absence of any full-scale biography by a Western scholar is surprising (for a comprehensive biography and bibliography in Persian see Pārsādust.) The Turkmen QezelbÄÅ¡ resisted, killing two successive wakils in the process, but could not halt the trend. á¹¬ahmÄsp I Shah of Iran 1514-1576 ; Useful Links. Alqas had rebelled and, fearing his brother's wrath, he had fled to the Ottoman court. If Shah ʿAbbās I is credited with establishing the Safavid dynasty as one of the principal architectural patrons known to Perso-Islamic history, and Shah Esmāʿil is recognized for his formal introduction of Twelver Shiʿism to Persia, Shah Ṭahmāsp must be acknowledged for his patronage and revival of Persian adab and cultural life. To some extent, his father had begun this process by patronizing a number of prominent Persian urbanites, most famously Yār-Aḥmad Ḵuzāni (laqab: Najm-e Ṯāni), in powerful bureaucratic positions, and we see this continued in Ṭahmāsp’s lengthy and close relationship with the chief vizier and wakil, Qāżi Jahān of Qazvin, after 1535. The Safavid defeat of the Uzbeks in that encounter, thanks primarily to their introduction of gunpowder technology to this particular frontier, turned out to be rather fleeting. 117-26. This page was last modified on 5 January 2016, at 13:03. On 9 July 1533 a royal decree was issued declaring that Karaki was not only the supreme religious authority in the Safavid court but that henceforth he was the “Deputy of the [Twelfth] Imam” (nāʾeb al-emām), an unsettling claim for many orthodox Shiʿite clerics both in and outside of Persia. ©2021 Encyclopædia Iranica Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Her name was Sultanum Bekum Mawsillu (Andrew J. Newman, Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism, Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History, "AZERBAIJAN x. Azeri Turkish Literature â Encyclopaedia Iranica", "ÙÚ¯Ø§ÙÛ Ø¨Ù Ù ÙØ³ÛÙÛ Ø¯ÙØ±Ù Û ØµÙÙÛÙ (905 - 1135 Ù) ,Ù Ø¬ÙÙ Ú¯ÙØ³ØªØ§Ù ÙÙØ± , Ù¾Ø§ÛÛØ² Ù Ø²Ù Ø³ØªØ§Ù 1384 - Ø´Ù Ø§Ø±Ù 2 , ØµÙØÙ 141 , ØªØµÙÛØ± | Ù¾Ø§ÛÚ¯Ø§Ù Ù Ø¬ÙØ§Øª ØªØ®ØµØµÛ ÙÙØ±", A king's book of kings: the Shah-nameh of Shah Tahmasb, https://infogalactic.com/w/index.php?title=Tahmasp_I&oldid=759585, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles containing Azerbaijani-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, About Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core, âAbuâl Muzaffar âAbuâl Fath Sultan Shah Tahmasb bin Shah Ismail al-Safavi al-Husayni al-Musavi, Sultanzada Khanum, daughter of Ali Khan Gorji, a, Zahra Baji, daughter of Prince Ot'ar Shalikashvili of. Šaraf-al-Din Bedlisi’s Šaraf-nāma, ed. 65-85, and “A Secretarial Career Under Shah Tahmasp I (1524-1576),” Islamic Studies 2, 1963, pp. Realizing that his plan to place Sām Mirzā on the throne was no longer tenable, Solaymān withdrew his Ottoman forces from Mesopotamia (with the exception of Baghdad) in 1535. During the 12th century, but beginning with the reign of Caliph al-MuktafÄ« (902â908), the situation of the Jews iâ¦ In the spring of 1534, news of a massive Ottoman invasion led by the Ottoman sultan Solaymān the Magnificent (r. 1520-66) in person, reached Ṭahmāsp in Balḵ. The ShÄ«'ahs, as was well known, loved children born in Mut'ah wedlock more than those born by nikÄh wives, contrary to the SunnÄ«s and the Ahl-i JamÄ'at. 387-405. Some celebrated instances of this bigoted orthodoxy include the massacre of various Noqṭawi and Ismaʿili communities, the abrogation of a number of objectionable verses from his father’s divān, the public decree that court poets henceforth write panegyrics solely to the Twelve Imams, and the xenophobic denigration of the English Muscovy Company agent, Anthony Jenkinson. He had been trained in drawing himself, and had some talent. One of Shah Tahmasp's more lasting achievements was his encouragement of the Persian rug industry on a national scale, possibly a response to the economic effects of the interruption of the Silk Road carrying trade during the Ottoman wars. R. Gyselen, Bures-sur-Yvette, 1996, pp. 351-70. Literary aspects of this reign have been studied by Paul Losensky. By naming his two-year old son as governor, and placing him in the care of the chief amir (see also AMIR-AL-OMARĀʾ) of the recently-incorporated Mawṣellu tribe, Esmāʿil was not only redistributing tribal power but also inducing a much-needed physical manifestation of the imperial Safavid family (which was considered sacred) in a troubled peripheral area of his nascent empire. Chahryar Adle, Paris, 1982, pp. A. H. Morton, London, 1993), has been invaluable for insights into various aspects of Safavid court culture and popular piety. Moreover, the Takkalu tribe and its leader, Čuha Solṭān, were in control of the cities of Isfahan and Hamadān. At the age of eight, Ṭahmāsp found himself in the center of a power struggle between Turkmens and “Tājiks,” that is Persians, personified in Amir Solṭān Mawṣellu and Amir Ḡiāṯ-al-Din, over the control of Herat. After a lengthy siege and ensuing negotiations, Herat was handed over to the Uzbeks by Sām Mirzā and his tutor, Ḥosayn Khan Šāmlu, in exchange for safe passage out of Khorasan to the west. King and qezelbāš ward (1524-33).Ṭahmāsp’s puppet status continued with his accession to the throne on 23 May 1524, and the self-appointed status of Div Solṭān Rumlu (one of the Sufis of the Old Guard “ṣufiān-e qadimi”) as the shah’s vicegerent and the empire’s de facto ruler. 61-76. She was born in 1593 and died in 1631, during the birth of her fourteenth child at Burhanpur. Most scholars concur that Tabriz had shown itself to be vulnerable to Ottoman attack, and strategy dictated having a centrally located royal capital. by Paul Horn, Die Denkwurdigkeiten schah Tahmasp's des Ersten von Persien (Strassburg: K. J. Trubner, 1891). They never regained their influence in Iran. 125-62. J. Calmard, Paris, 1993, pp. By the time of the fourth invasion in 1553, it was clear that Ṭahmāsp had a policy of annexation and resettlement in mind as he incorporated control of Tbilisi (Tiflis) and the region of Kartli while physically transplanting more than 30,000 people, mostly women and children, to the central Iranian plateau. Hist. The latter half of Shah Ṭahmāsp’s reign saw the emergence of a new political and courtly agency in the sayyeds and their various networks intersecting cities like Tabriz, Qazvin, Isfahan, and the recently incorporated centers of Rašt, Astarābād, and Āmol. The Art of Eternal Rest: Ottoman Mausoleums and Tombstones U. Haarmann and P. Bachmann, Beirut, 1979, pp. Mumtaz Mahal was a niece of empress Nur Jahan and granddaughter of Mirza Ghias Beg Iâtimad-ud-Daula, wazir of emperor Jehangir. , During the final Ottoman invasion of Iran in 1553, Tahmasp seized the initiative and defeated Iskandar Pasha near Erzerum. Annoyed by the Uzbek proclivity for occupying Safavid territory in his absence, Ṭahmāsp spent the next eight months in Khorasan, expanding Safavid dominion in the direction of Marv and Ḡarčestān, while at the same time re-appointing Sām Mirzā to the governorship of Khorasan and naming Aḡzivār Khan Šāmlu as his brother’s Turkmen lala, or advisor.  Gabriel de Luetz was able to give decisive military advice to Suleiman, as when he advised on artillery placement during the Siege of VÄn. For works reproducing aspects of Persian miniature painting during the Safavid period, the following are worth noting. While no documentation exists as to what was taking place among the general population, numerous incidents are recorded of royal courts serving as arenas for recitals of secular and love poetry and concerts by prominent musicians. It is in no small part on account of Ṭahmāsp’s patronage of artists, miniaturists, calligraphers, historians, poets, stylists, bookbinders, and other cultural artisans, primarily from Timurid Khorasan, that the Safavid dynasty was able to emerge as an imperial entity of any significance. Illustrations from the celebrated Safavid copy of the Haft Awrang have been reproduced by M. S. Simpson in Sultan Ibrahim Mirza’s Haft Awrang: A Princely Manuscript from Sixteenth-Century Iran, New Haven, 1997. Tahmasp was the son of Shah Ismail I and Shah-Begi Khanum (known under the title Tajlu Khanum) of the Turcoman Mawsillu tribe. His letter of remorse never reached Suleiman and he was forced to flee abroad to avoid execution. On his death, as expected, fighting broke out between the different court factions. For Safavid genealogies, see Šayḵ Ḥosayn Pirzāda Zāhedi, Selselat al-nasab-e ṣafawiyya, ed. Madjnun is made mad by his love of Laila, he critically rejected, he flees to the desert, and makes friend with animals. A number of letters from the Safavid court of Shah Ṭahmāsp are reproduced in Feridun Ahmad Bey, Monšaʿāt al-salāṭin, 2 vols., Istanbul, 1857-58. Perhaps more telling is Ṭahmāsp’s own claims that he regularly foresaw future events while dreaming and was visited in his dreams on a number of occasions by Sufi saints, most notably his ancestors, Shaikh Ṣafi-al-Din and Solṭān Ḥaydar. In 1528, ʿObayd-Allāh managed to re-conquer the cities of Astarābād and Mashad and lay siege to the city of Herat.  These would become an important new element in Iranian society. A dispute arose in the Ottoman Empire over who was to succeed the aged Suleiman the Magnificent. Some of the tribes recognised a Qizilbash leader, Div Sultan Rumlu, as regent (atabeg) to the shah, but others dissented and in 1526 a bloody civil war broke out among the differing factions. Shortly afterwards, Bayezid was killed by agents sent by his own father. She also built relationships with the wife and sister of á¹¬ahmÄsp I, shah of Persia. , In 1574, Tahmasp fell ill and discord broke out among the Qizilbash once more, this time over which prince was to succeed him. (a. Iran's enemies, the Uzbeks, had taken advantage of the civil war to invade the north-eastern province of Khorasan. On 5 July 1527 as Div Sultan arrived for a meeting of the government, Tahmasp shot an arrow at him. Finally, the reign of Shah Ṭahmāsp is particularly rich in terms of historiography (For details see the primary sources subsection of the bibliography). ṬAHMĀSP I, second ruler of the Safavid dynasty (b. village of Šāh-ābād near Isfahan, 22 February, 1514; d. Qazvin, 14 May, 1576). J. Calmard, Paris, 1993, pp. The abundance of materials available for this period in terms of court chronicles, royal memoirs, poetry, religious treatises, calligraphy, and miniature painting simply emphasizes this lack. Seven of Tahmasp's surviving sons were by Georgian or Circassian mothers and two by a Turcoman. He came to the throne aged ten in 1524 and came under the control of the Qizilbash, Turkic tribesmen who formed the backbone of the Safavid power. C. Seddon, 2 vols., Baroda, 1931-33; ʿAbdi Beg Širāzi, Takmelat al-aḵbār, ed. (1524-1576) aus Dagestan,” in Muslim Culture in Russia and Central Asia, ed. Shorter, less prosaic accounts can be found in: Ḥasan Beg Rumlu, Aḥsan al-tawāriḵ, ed. Moreover, Esmāʿil insisted that there should be a religious tutor to instruct the young prince in the principal rituals and ceremonies of Twelver Shiʿism, and the religious notable and prominent Persian urbanite of Herat, Amir Ḡiāṯ-al-Din Moḥammad b. Amir Yusof, was appointed to the ṣadārat-e šāhzāda (the prince’s tutorship and guardianship). Probably the most detailed court chronicle of this period, produced shortly after Ṭahmāsp’s reign, is Qāżi Aḥmad b. Šaraf-al-Din Qomi’s Ḵolāṣat al-tawāriḵ, ed. Tahmasp then handed the prince over to the Ottoman ambassador. Shah EsmÄÊ¿il died in 1524, to be succeeded by his ten-year old son á¹¬ahmÄsp, at a time when Persia had begun to recover from the misery and devastation that had accompanied the early Safavid conquests. , From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Iran, VI, 1986, pp. 1, Tehran, 2000, pp. Specific documents have been examined in A. N. Kozlova, “Ein persisches Dokument von Šah Tahmasp I. R. Savory discusses Ṭahmāsp’s reign in Iran Under the Safavids, Cambridge, 1980, pp. Indeed, the developments during this period support the contention that one particular coterie of sayyeds from Māzandarān and the east were especially influential for the duration of Shah Ṭahmāsp’s reign.  One of his most notable successors, the greatest Safavid emperor, Abbas I (also known as Abbas the Great) would fully implement and finalize this policy and the creation of this new layer in Iranian society. A more appealing explanation for basing the central, royal administration in Qazvin lies with the aforementioned agenda of minimizing undue Turkic influence in the Safavid court.  A decision was thus taken to attack the Ottoman Empire on both fronts, but Balbi took more than one year to return to the Iranian Empire, and by that time the situation had changed in Safavid Iran, as Iran was forced to make peace with the Ottoman Empire because of an insurrection of the Shaybanid Uzbeks. 12-18) attest to the shah’s longstanding recognition and sponsorship of Christian Armenian (see also ARMENIA AND IRAN vi, pp. C. Melville, London, 1996, pp. A number of contemporary sources exist for the study of the reign of Shah Ṭahmāsp, and thanks to the work of several scholars, many have been made available in published editions. The reign of Mehmed IIâs immediate successor, Bayezid II (1481â1512), was largely a period of rest. As Andrew Newman has argued (see bibliography), the question of Arabic-speaking theologians migrating to Persia in the 16th century brings up an important problem of how Safavid Persia and its understanding of Shiʿism was viewed by the outside Twelver Shiʿite world, not to mention the majority Sunni community. He also captured one of Suleiman's favourites, Sinan Beg. idem, Albany, 1988, pp. 4 (1949): 46-53. p. 46-53 www.jstor.org The Cleveland Museum of Art. "A Persian Velvet of the ShÄh á¹¬ahmÄsp Period." Iran - Iran - Shah Ê¿AbbÄs I: The á¹¢afavids were still faced with the problem of making their empire pay. For aspects of Ṭahmāsp’s diplomacy, see I. Of the calligraphers: Mollā ʿAbdi Nišāpuri, Ostād Shah Maḥmud Nišāpuri, Mollā Rostam ʿAli Haravi. During this period, the Ottomans committed a genocide against the Armenian people which tarnished the name of the Empire in the eyes of the world and history and still haunts the modern Turkish republic. Political History: Ṭahmāsp as a princeling (1516-24). M. R. Izady, Costa Mesa, Calif., 2004). Richard Hakluyt, Principal Navigations 2, repr. However, the earliest known literary evidence of the hookah, anywhere, comes in a quatrain by AhlÄ« Shirazi (d. 1535), a Persian poet, referring to the use of the á¸¡alyÄn (FalsafÄ«, II, p. 277; SemsÄr, 1963, p. 15), thus dating its use at least as early as the time of the Shah á¹¬ahmÄsp I. However, various sources, both Persian and European, indicate that Shah Ṭahmāsp, not unlike his father, allowed, and perhaps even endorsed, unorthodox behavior and court rituals among his followers well after his public decrying of such heretical innovations (bedʿat). The Safavids organized a counter-offensive under Bahrām Mirzā, and this eventually drove the remnants of Alqāṣ Mirzā’s forces from Dezful to Ottoman territory. Commanders as FarhÄd KhÄn ( pp Bayezid, had taken advantage of the Kurdish Nation, tr in n.... G. 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