The pineapple peel and core were dried separately in a hot-air oven (UN55, … We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Pineapple powder is an interesting product because of its long shelf life at ambient temperature, convenience to use and low transportation expenditure. Costa Rica is the world’s largest pineapple producer and Germany’s main supplier of the fruit. IMPROVE YOUR SUGARLOAF PINEAPPLE PRODUCTION ILLUSTRATED MANUAL FOR ORGANIC FARMERS IN GHANA . Ethyl butyrate is one of the most common chemicals used in flavors and fragrances. From then on we saw a surge in production no longer limited to the Caribbean and the United States, and to a lesser degree Asia, but which rapidly expanded and intensified in Asia and Africa. [1] This is of primary concern to the communities of Cairo, La France, Milano and others in the Siquirres district of north-eastern Costa Rica. In Costa Rica, pineapples are harvested twice a year, and more than 50 different chemical substances and 30-38kg of chemicals are used per year on one hectare under cultivation. The pineapple, was a very minor crop in Thailand until 1966 when the first large cannery was built. Large-scale pineapple production has the same environmentally damaging effects as banana production, and workers also face social and economic difficulties. Workers also face union repression, gender discrimination and health issues caused by working with toxic chemicals. Some researchers have used pineapple syrup, a food. The fruits are cheap because costs are cut in the production countries – affecting wages and health factors. Vitamin C helps build and repair bodily tissue and promotes wound healing. Pineapples are propagated from crown, slip and suckers. These processes also include heavy amounts of agrochemicals; the use of these chemicals is not only used in the open fields, but also in the confined space of the pack house. Growing pineapples isn’t always all fun and games, but you can produce a perfect pineapple with helpful information about pests and diseases that affect this plant. PINEAPPLE UNCTAD INFOCOMM 6 development of refrigerated transport. The agro-industrial residues used in this study were pineapple waste products from the canned pineapple industry, i.e., pineapple peel, core, and CAE. The red text shows the type of agrochemical used at each stage of the process in conventional large scale production. Chemical Composition Change in Pineapple during Ripening: the Optimum Stage for Drying A. M. P. Braga(1), P. H. S. Santos(1), R. Z. de Souza(2), M. A. Silva(1) 1School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. The Del Monte fruit company and its subsidiaries produce over 50% of Costa Rica’s pineapple exports. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. In the 2012-13 season, the Australian pineapple processing sector produced 39,000 t of fruit for canning and juicing, which was worth $12.5 million. Pineapple peel, a by-product of the pineapple processing industry, account for 29-40% (w/w) of total pineapple weight. Growing and harvesting pineapples is a back breaking, and painstaking process. Many pineapple workers earn around half of what they deem to be a ‘living wage’. Read on to learn about common pineapple pests and plant diseases so you know what you should be watching for as your plant develops and how to treat issues in pineapple. Some of the chemicals like Paraquat are not licensed for use in … FRUITS, BENEFITS, PROCESSING, PRESERVATION AND PINEAPPLE RECIPES Joy P. P. & Minu Abraham, Pineapple Research Station (Kerala Agricultural University), Vazhakulam-686 670, However, there are approximately 24,000 workers not included in these reports (comprising an estimated 85% of their total workforce) who also work for these companies. Pineapples are high in vitamin C, dietary fibre, calcium, manganese and potassium. Bromelain is an enzyme extract derived from the stems of pineapples, although it exists in all parts of the fresh pineapple. The Philippine pineapple industry is largely operated by two companies – Dole Philippines (Dolefil) and Del Monte Philippines Inc. (DMPI) – who grow 80% of its pineapples. 9 Organic production is where basically no pesticides or chemical fertilizers are used. Canned pineapple products are however, usually imported into the region. Many have no official papers or visas, which leaves them particularly vulnerable to the power of their employers, who can sack and deport them at any sign of trouble, for example, if they complain about working conditions or join a trade union. DOI: 10.1021/i560149a008. Pineapple is rich in citric and malic acids; citric acid concentrations in some cultivars exceed 8%.4 The fruit also contains moderate amounts of ascorbic acid; 2 slices of pineapple contain 100 mg of ascorbic acid.5 A steroidal component of the leaves possesses estrogenic activity4 and a variety of aromatic compounds are found in the essential oil. Since piña is from a leaf, the leaf is cut first from the plant. Workers are required to treat the soil, which involves the use of fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides. Many local communities have also had their natural sources of drinking water contaminated, for example in the communities of El Cairo, La Francia and Luisiana in the Southern Atlantic zone of Costa Rica where over 6,000 people have to rely on government tanks to deliver drinking water supplies to the affected region. COOL DOWN: The Sherriff family has installed an irrigation system in a block to see how watering reduces sunburn on young pineapples. These cookies do not store any personal information. The body uses Vitamin C to metabolize fats and cholesterol, absorb iron, and synthesize amino acids and collagen. The long working hours are particularly challenging for women who are left with no spare time to care for the family and household. Anti-union tactics include: Pineapple production is characterised by large-scale, high-input and monoculture plantations dependent on regular and intense use of a number of toxic agrochemicals. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Tissue ulture 2. The methods includes: 1. Kleeman (2011) argues that organic products earn a premium price on the market compared to conventional (inorganic) products. The last step in the land preparation is to apply chemicals designed to kill off any parasites … They also work in particularly poor conditions, working long hours and receiving poverty wages. The extract has a history of folk medicine use. Some of the chemicals like Paraquat are not licensed for use in the EU and are classified by the US as likely to be carcinogenic. Unemployment amongst women in Costa Rica is around 11.2%, and pineapple companies increasingly prefer to employ men due to the ‘high costs’ associated with employing women, such as maternity pay. Once the fibre has been stripped from the leaf the leftover biomass can be retained to use as a natural fertiliser or bio-fuel, offering a further … The residue left after juice extraction contains large quantities of vitamin A and is used as a component of livestock feed. On the other hand, these small producers represent a minority in an industry that is dominated by large-scale, conventional production controlled by a handful of powerful fruit companies. In industrial use, it is also one of the cheapest chemicals, which only adds to its popularity. The fruit is also a digestive aid and has anti-inflammatory properties due to the bromelian content. Costa Rica is the world’s largest pineapple producer, and is known both for its exemplary ecological approach and for sustainable tourism. Union members can face discrimination, persecution and sometimes violence. This variety has sold well since Del Monte launched the first ‘Gold’ pineapple on our supermarket shelves in 1992. Scottish artist, Jan Nimmo, travels to Costa Rica to meet Carlos Arguedas Mora, trade unionist and passionate environmental campaigner and Dr Catharina Wesseling, a scientist with a long track record of researching agro-chemicals and their effects on workers. A crude aqueous extract of pineapple know… Costa Rica is one of the most beautiful countries in the world but land and water are being polluted by industrial scale agriculture. This share is steadily increasing as retailers seek to buy direct from producers, cutting out the middle men, ie. Pineapple can be eaten both fresh and processed although the proteolytic protein bromelain will degrade if it is processed, this means that if tinned pineapple is used to make jelly it will set, but if fresh pineapple is used the jelly will not set, also if you use fresh pineapple to cook your ham steaks it will help to tenderise the meat. Various rapid propagation can be used in the production of pineapple. In Costa Rica, the typical wage for pineapple workers is above the national average at €73 per week. Analytical results shall be kept as evidence. Of the annual production of 1 1/2 million tons, 1/8 is canned as fruit or Julce. As an ingredient, it is used in cosmetics, as a topical medication, and as a meat tenderizer. We imagine Costa Rica as a tropical Paradise, Heaven on Earth…but Pura Vida exposes the social and environmental impact of toxic agro-chemicals used to grow bananas and pineapples for export to Europe. Moreover, the poor environmental practice of both national and international producers is leading to environmental problems of contamination of local aquifers and groundwater, soil erosion, sedimentation and deforestation. New research just published by the Dutch Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations (SOMO) reveals a pattern of recurring labour right violations on farms certified by almost all the well-known sustainability certification initiatives, such as Fairtrade and Rainforest Alliance. Piñatex ® is made from the leaves of the pineapple plant, the byproduct of the fruit industry, which are traditionally discarded or burned. putting union members on ‘blacklists’, preventing them from finding work on other plantations. Whilst the major fruit companies such as Del Monte, Dole, Fyffes and Chiquita used to dominate the world pineapple supply chain, the last 10 years have seen a rise in the influence of major retailers. Some companies are, however, introducing mechanised harvesting which goes some way to reduce the strain on workers. The production of biofuels including ethanol and hydrogen from agricultural waste is being concern as a renewable energy. The fruit usually ripens about 5 months after flowering. It is mainly grown for its fruits, either fresh or in processed forms. Land Preparation: The first step in pineapple production is preparing the land for planting pineapples. Since then processing and exporting have risen rapidly. Around 50% of workers on Costa Rican pineapple plantations are hired through subcontractors who provide a flexible, low paid and non-unionised workforce. This is absolute monoculture, and that and the climate provide the perfect conditions for pests and diseases. These materials were obtained from Siam Food Products Public Company Limited (a Banbung factory at Tambol Nong-Irun, Amphoe Banbung, Chonburi, Thailand). Pineapple production regions are usually confined to altitudes below 800 m above sea level, although Kenya reports production fields located between 1400 and 1800 m, and Malaysia orchards as high as 2400 m (Purseglove, 1968). These groups conducted fi eld research on pineapple plantations and processing facilities. Due to the peculiarity of the fruit and its production cycle, which is falsely accelerated, approximately 60 per cent from every tonne of chemicals used in the cultivation of pineapples goes directly into the environment. Adding value to this waste has created a new source of income for farming communities who otherwise rely on a seasonal harvest. This requires the workers to constantly be bent over to plant seeds, weed, and harvest pineapples. They also allow the producing companies to avoid direct responsibility for ensuring adequate working conditions in line with national and international labour laws. It is ecological and environmentally friendly as against the inorganic type, where chemical fertilizers are used. I. Pineapple production is characterised by large-scale, high-input and monoculture plantations dependent on regular and intense use of a number of toxic agrochemicals. The real boom in pineapple production and trade came in the post-Second World War period, in tandem with increased demand and the . There are several phases that go into the production of pineapples: Land Preparation, Planting, Maintenance, Harvesting, and Packaging. Suckers may be planted using the minimum tillage system. The level of union organisation is extremely low (about 2%) in the Costa Rican pineapple industry. Many of the chemicals used are not licensed for use in the EU because they are considered to be too dangerous to use. For those women that have secured work, the conditions can be very difficult, such as discrimination and, in some cases, sexual harassment. In Queensland, pineapples are grown in the Sunshine Coast, Wide Bay, Yeppoon, Coastal North Queensland and the Atherton Tableland regions. Smaller producers do exist, but many are facing high debts and bankruptcy. That, of course, is wonderful. It promotes a non-food-based market for agricultural industry Unfortunately, most of the bromelain in canned pineapples is destroyed due to the heat used in the canning process. The majority of large scale plantations are in operation for 24 hours a day. In case of risk, water shall be tested by either official or accredited laboratory for hazardous substances. Pineapple is the latest bargain offer in supermarkets, but the true cost is paid in the countries where it is produced. Treating the plant with chemicals may also result in new plant formation LAND PREPARATION Prior to the planting of Pineapples, the land should be cleared of all bushes. If grown in areas of scanty rainfall with hot weather, then irrigation must be done once in two weeks. These migrant workers are the secret to Costa Rica’s pineapple success. Then the fiber is pulled or split away from the leaf. The other major fruit companies followed suit. Like any large scale production, the pineapple industry is also responsible for significant environmental damage in producer countries. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Therefore, workers have no respite from the suffocating heat of the day. In 1977-78 many farmers switched from sugarcane to pineapple. Some local communities can no longer drink their water safely and must have water brought in from afar. Each strand of the Piña fiber is hand scraped and is knotted one by one to form a continuous filament to be hand-woven and then made into a Piña cloth. Pineapple plants are spiky and difficult to handle, they grow low to the ground requiring workers to stoop over the plants, and the monoculture production method requires that there is no shade over the plants. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Compared to retailers, pineapple workers only receive around 4% of the value along the supply chain. However, some examples of better social and environmental practices can be seen within the industry, particularly in the case of small Fairtrade and Organic cetified producers in the northern region of Costa Rica. Peter Šiška, Daniela Danková, Dária Nitrayová, Peter Fodran, Ivan Špánik, Peter Szolcsányi. In fact, the Costa Rican tropical fruit export market was valued at $1.22 billion in 2015. Pineapple production uses extensive chemical inputs as plantation corporations want to ensure high yields and export-level quality of the fruits. Banana Occupational Health and Safety Initiative (BOHESI), 49 Colegate Norwich NR3 1DD United Kingdom. ILRF’s partner labor advocacy NGOs in Costa Rica, ASEPROLA, and in the Philippines, EILER, have found abundant evidence that labor rights abuses, inhumane working conditions, and environmental degradation have plagued the industry around the world. Their CSR reports give the impression that they take really good care of their workers. Pineapple plants can mostly be found in Latin America and West Africa. Production of pineapple fiber. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. There are a range of worker roles in the production of pineapples, these vary from land preparation in the field to loading pineapples into boxes in the pack house. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. For their report – Looking good on paper: Review of recent research on the impact of sustainability certication on working conditions on large farms – SOMO reviewed published evidence about the effectiveness of sustainability certification initiatives on labour conditions at large-scale farms in low- and middle-income countries from 2014-2017. Regionally, pineapple is also used in the production of processed products with products such as juices, blended juices, jams and jellies made for local trade and home use. The types of tasks, in both the field and the packing hourses involve using heavy machinery and carrying out repetitive tasks that put a lot of strain on the body (i.e., constant bending over to plant seeds, weed and harvest the pineapples). the multinational traders. However, they are expected to work at least 80 hours per week to earn this ‘privilege’. A report by Banana Link looking at the pineapple industry in Costa Rica found that three women working on one PINDECO (a Del Monte subsidiary) plantation alleged severe cases of sexual discrimination and harassment from male plantation managers. The large scale, industrial, mono-production of pineapple means a lot of intensive chemical use as noted earlier. 1.1 Water used in the production processes shall come from sources that do not cause contamination of hazardous substances against produce. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. 9. processing waste, as low cost substrate for the production of lactic acid using Lactobacillus. Worker conditions can be incredibly difficult. While profits for some have tremendously expanded under such development, this report demonstrates how pineapple workers, their families and communities, and the environment in the largest pineapple producing nations have not enjoyed the benefits of such growth. They use organophosphates, organochlorines, hormone … Micro-propagation using stem and shoot subdivisions 3. The use of agricultural chemical inputs, which includes pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides and others are prevalent in the Philippines. PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR PINEAPPLE Mercedes M. 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There are several phases that go into the region 84 % grown in areas of scanty with... ) in the post-Second world War period, in tandem with increased and... Large-Scale, monoculture plantations dependent on regular and intense use of agricultural chemical inputs, includes! Lactic acid using Lactobacillus its popularity ambient temperature, convenience to use and transportation! To opt-out of these cookies that they take really good care of their workers 2 % ) in the where... Where chemical fertilizers are used with no spare time to care for the website pineapple peel, food. Your consent statistics, pineapples are high in vitamin C … Diuron is a broad-spectrum residual and! Scale production bodily tissue and promotes wound healing Germany ’ s pineapple success middle men ie.