Any of these overlapping works would serve a reader well as a survey, analysis, and call to corrective action. Their advice to friends and counselors of a woman who has been led to suspect early molestation is generally the same: never cast doubt on those suspicions. And third, Terr was refusing to grant any distinction in memorability between George Franklin’s usual brutality and the witnessed rape and murder of Eileen’s best girlhood friend. It is precisely women who make up most of the movement’s casualties. As Thomas Nagel innocently puts it, each doubtful hypothesis “has to find its empirical support in countless other applications to other patients in other settings.” That is exactly the home-team approach to validation that produces abundant support for “facilitated communication,” Satanic mind control, UFO abductions, previous incarnations, and telepathy—this last a favorite pastime of Freud’s. But Lenore Terr first needed to tiptoe across a theoretical minefield of her own. Today, I gather, she is still concerned with denouncing a coven of Satanists within the Olympia police department. But Terr is a thoroughly trained Freudian, and as such she felt qualified, after all, to offer the Franklin jury what she calls “an education” in the reality of repressed memory and its retrieval. It was preceded by Harry N. MacLean’s scrupulous book-length retelling of the murder story, Once Upon a Time, and now it has been scrutinized by MacLean himself, by Elizabeth Loftus and Katherine Ketcham in The Myth of Repressed Memory, and by Richard Ofshe, professor of sociology at the University of California, Berkeley, and Ethan Watters in an even more trenchant new book, Making Monsters.6 In view of their findings, the Franklin matter may come to serve as a very different object lesson from the one that Terr intended. The study of trauma in sexual and domestic life becomes legitimate only in a context that challenges the subordination of women and children. Even the most adventuresome of modern memory enthusiasts, those who believe in Satan cults and who induce “past life regression” in their clients, had a predecessor of sorts in Freud. They wanted to see if Ahsoka "worked" in the Mandalorian, and based on the youtube reactions people are really excited to see her live. But it also relegates them to history’s ashcan. An older and a younger sister have also refuted this claim. Insofar, then, as the Franklin trial hinged on Terr’s testimony about Stephen King, it appears that one no-evidence case was decided on the basis of another. It was her father’s. Horner found that forty-eight experts, all examining the same material, could reach no significant agreement as to whether a child had been molested by her father. What is most arresting about the Ingram calamity is how little suggestion—indeed, how little autosuggestion—was required to set it in motion and then to keep it hurtling toward its climax. It is as though it comes from a phonograph. For Eileen’s nineteenth birthday celebration, she took a similar trip with George to Ensenada in the same vehicle. Only a few hours into his first grilling, Paul Ingram was ready to state, “I did violate them and abuse them and probably for a long period of time. The “scene” in question includes an apparently ritualistic drinking of blood from the girl’s mutilated vaginal lip, which, Freud informs Fliess, “is even shorter today” (Freud-Fliess Letters, p. 227). A more likely account is that the adult Cheit refocused his faded but unrepressed experiences after he had read a book about pedophilia (as he did) and became morally exercised about it. As it happens, the most impressive controlled illustration of this fact to date came directly from the Paul Ingram case, after the prosecutors—not the defense!—had invited the social psychologist Richard Ofshe to Olympia as an expert on cults and mind control. BuzzFeed … Etc. And a number of other book-length critiques are just now arriving on the scene.6 Above all, steady progress in public enlightenment has been forged, over the past two-and-a-half years, by the False Memory Syndrome Foundation, most of whose members are themselves slandered relatives of “survivors.”. Subsequent parenthetic references to volumes of the Standard Edition will be designated “SE.” ↩, Before 1897, for example, Freud could hardly have condemned the fourteen-year-old Dora as abnormal for spurning “an occasion for sexual excitement” proffered by her father’s married friend (SE, 7:28). ), decided to test Ingram’s suggestibility by proposing a false memory for him to accept or reject. “Bartleby’s Revenge” tells a tale of the enduring bonds of childhood friendship in an unfamiliar tune. ↩, To take an admittedly extreme example, Freud once treated a teen-age girl for what he called “an unmistakable hysteria, which did in fact clear up quickly and radically under my care.” But her abdominal pains had the ingratitude to recur, and two months later she was dead of cancer—a fact that caused Freud a rare access of chagrin but prompted no second thoughts about the correctness of his diagnosis (SE, 6:146n.). ↩, Paul R. McHugh, “Psychiatric Misadventures,” The American Scholar, Vol. This sanctioned prurience is the thread that Mark Pendergrast traces from witch persecutions through mesmerism to hypnotherapy to psychoanalysis itself and, full circle, to the detection of Satanic abuse. Crews suggests that Cheit "lost track of the incident" due to … ↩, See, respectively, The Complete Letters of Sigmund Freud to Wilhelm Flies, 1887–1904, edited by Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson (Harvard University Press, 1985), pp. Boys Chorus Settles Abuse Suit,” San Francisco Chronicle, Sept. 1, 1994, p. A2. Awkwardly, however, her research interest in actual cases of repressed memory was quite new; it seems to have postdated the writing of her 1990 book, Too Scared to Cry, which contains no index entry for “repression” and which reports on cases of continuously remembered rather than forgotten trauma.7 Terr’s expertise on sudden recall, moreover, dated from her first interview with Eileen Lipsker herself—and was then swelled by a flood of highly dubious anecdotes about other women’s therapeutically prompted visions of incest. I…explain to the patient that [these distinctions] are only forms of his resistance and pretexts raised by it against reproducing this particular memory, which we must recognize in spite of all this (SE, 2:279–280).16. Eileen never testified about seeing what Terr calls “white socks and white child-size underwear” in the rape scene, but only something white. When that romance is fleshed out by a gifted storyteller who also bears impressive credentials as an expert on the mind, most readers in our culture will be disinclined to put up intellectual resistance. The patient’s typical response to such hectoring was an agitation that Freud, like his counterparts a century later, paraded as validation of his guesswork: “The behaviour of patients while they are reproducing these infantile experiences is in every respect incompatible with the assumption that the scenes are anything else than a reality which is being felt with distress and reproduced with the greatest reluctance” (SE, 3:204). Did any of her experiments, she was asked in cross-examination, deal with memories that were two decades old? However uneasy one may feel about an ideologically driven “reinvention” of scientific notions, it is possible that the feminist critique of received psychological lore is substantially right. In a follow-up book, Prozan offers a case history that dramatically embodies the blending of elements from standard psychoanalysis and therapy for repressed abuse. Symptoms are “residues and mnemic symbols of particular (traumatic) experiences” (SE, 11:16), and “dreaming is another kind of remembering” (SE, 17:51). Thus a classically trained psychoanalyst would hesitate to claim, as the memory therapists do, that a dream—supposedly a mosaic of infantile and diurnal residues, of wish and defense, of confession and concealment—could be regarded as a direct source of information about the dreamer’s early history or the identity of her suspected molester. Why, then, should the jury believe that Eileen Lipsker had repressed her harrowing ordeal? On the contrary, Franklin’s junked van from 1969, located and microscopically studied by police investigators, bore no trace of the twenty-year-old crime. “Why would you want to suffer if you didn’t have to?” asked one member of the audience who, like nearly all the others, believed Eileen’s story and considered Loftus a heartless crank. How could he not have expected to be found out? ↩, Eileen Lipsker’s problems with memory are echoed by Terr’s own in her capacity as storyteller. Since every Freudian concept and commitment is revisable in a pinch, we may yet see the emergence of a hybrid psychoanalysis that has borrowed new vitality from the recovered memory movement. In contrast, the junior partner in Making Monsters, Ethan Watters, was the first journalist to sound an alarm about the recovered memory movement, and the book casts him as a full collaborator; that is why I will refer to “Ofshe and Watters” below. The creeping revenge of the unreformed state security machine pulled it back down, which means that myriads of secrets remain concealed from the public domain. As a result of all these considerations, the most prudent and efficient way to treat psychological problems is not to address the patient’s current situation, beliefs, and incapacities but to identify and remove the repressions that date from much earlier years. Among the many respects in which the memory retrievers’ glorification of Freud’s “seduction theory” misfires, the least noticed has to do with his alleged sympathy for incest sufferers. 85–102; the quotation is from p. 96. When all this is said, however, there remains an important core of shared assumptions between psychoanalysis and its hyperactive young successor. ↩, Although two of the works under consideration here have double authorship, the Loftus and Ketcham book is cast in the first person singular, and its protagonist is Loftus herself. A chasm does yawn, however, between the principles of the recovered memory movement and psychoanalysis in Freud’s most familiar articulation of it. Yet they are so widely believed as to constitute what Richard Wollheim and Thomas Nagel, among others, regard as the psychological common sense of our era.23 For Nagel, indeed, this popularity serves as actual proof that Freud must have been on the right track; if the Freudian revelation has convinced people as savvy as ourselves, Nagel thinks, there must be something to it.24 He might entertain second thoughts after realizing how the common sense of the 1990s, not unlike that of the 1690s, has run amok when taken literally by demonologists. 10 In King Kong, greedy businessmen capture an enormous gorilla on a remote island and take him to New York where he is chained, caged, put on display, and otherwise abused. ↩, See Katy Butler, “S.F. While this, too, is guesswork, the fact that it can’t be ruled out renders Cheit’s case useless as a demonstration. Some understanding of it, however, is helpful towards an According to Barrett, as Ofshe and Watters report. We continue our look at the Enneagram’s repressed centers of intelligence this week by returning to the Heart. Portents of such an eventuality can already be found. As Mark Pendergrast relates in Victims of Memory, the mounting (and very legitimate) concern about the underreported incidence of real child molestation formed only one corner of the picture. Quarterly Review of Film and Video: Vol. Common sense has in fact expanded to include parts of Freudian theory. Wright tells of Paul Ingram, an Olympia, Washington, sheriff’s deputy, a born-again Christian, and the chair of his county Republican committee, who was eventually thought to have raped both of his daughters as well as one of his sons innumerable times, to have passed the daughters around sexually as poker nights at home turned into gang rapes, to have hideously tortured the girls and forced them and his wife to have sex with goats and dogs, and to have murdered and cannibalized many babies at huge gatherings of his Satanic cult—where, be it noted, long gowns, pitchforks, and “Viking hats” were de rigueur. Through the aid of an objective therapist in whom we invest authority, trust, and love, we can not only arrive at an accurate diagnosis of our mental problems but also retrieve the key elements of our mental history in substantially accurate form, uncontaminated by the therapist’s theoretical bias. There is, in the first place, the eerily dreamlike quality of the “memories” themselves, whose floating perspective, blow-up details, and motivational anomalies point to the contribution of fantasy.13 There is the therapist’s reckless encouragement of the client to indulge her visions and worry “later”—usually never—whether or not they are true, along with his “supportive” absence of concern to check the emerging allegations against available knowledge. The Bharatiya Janata Party’s rule came with an attack on Dalits and the minorities. Now both daughters have taken different last names, and in concluding his book with a poignant letter to them, Pendergrast further protects their identities by assigning them fictitious first names as well. ↩, Indeed, as Frank J. Sulloway has pointed out, after the seduction fiasco Freud’s “theory of the neuroses became, in significant part, a theory about infantile masturbation.” See Freud, Biologist of the Mind: Beyond the Psychoanalytic Legend, revised edition (1979; Harvard University Press, 1992), p. 185. She has moved away now and lives under a different name, as does the only one of her five children who hasn’t fled Olympia. It was only after many therapeutic setbacks, Ferenczi reminded himself, that Freud came to call patients “a rabble,” good for nothing but “to provide us with a livelihood and material to learn from.”26 Eventually, his private pessimism about ever being able to cast out our psychic demons crept over his whole affluent institution, which now, in the 1990s, stands suddenly naked before the only skeptics it can’t ignore, the insurers who decide what is and isn’t a reimbursable form of treatment. And this is important for grasping the explosive potentiality of recovered memory allegations. Later, the two of them drove across the country together to Florida, employing the back of the VW van, the supposed site of Susan Nason’s rape, as their joint sleeping quarters. 9, ix. ↩, As for anomalies, why did George Franklin take his daughter along to watch the rape and murder of her dearest friend? In expressing erotic feelings that … In his book The Revenge of Geography, ... and Eastern Europe — with Germany divided in the middle, with all of that to the east being these gray, boring, repressed satellite states. I don't remember what exactly started the bullying and I have a crapload of repressed memories about that period, but I do remember this one guy in particular. Those two facts together suggest that the sharpness of Eileen Lipsker’s “memory” must have been caused by recent images—and, as we will see, there was no shortage of such potential contaminants at hand.9. ↩, In recently redesignating MPD as “dissociative identity disorder,” the American Psychiatric Association has started to back away from the syndrome’s more lurid implications. Save 50% off the regular rate and 75% off the cover price and receive a free 2021 calendar! What could be worse than all this? Thus in the movement’s most influential document, The Courage to Heal, first published in 1988, Ellen Bass and Laura Davis proclaim that “none of what is presented here is based on psychological theories.” Instead, Bass and Davis appeal directly to “the experiences of survivors”—who, however, may or may not be survivors of abuse, depending on whether they have actually learned the previously repressed truth or succumbed to therapeutically induced delusion. ↩, Controlled research indicates that there is nothing easy about identifying incest victims from their symptoms. The Franklin/Lipsker case, so attractive to Lenore Terr as Exhibit A of validated repression, actually shows how a “memory” originating in conscious hunches and resentments can be crystallized by protracted therapeutic suggestion, or the subliminal contagion of ideas between a dominant and a subordinate party. The recovery movement, it must be plainly understood, is not primarily addressed to people who always knew about their sexual victimization. There was nothing exceptional about the Ingram family’s prelapsarian makeup or the Olympia scene in general. Great takers. And even in the best of cases, a “survivor” is coached to reject the happiest actual memories of her childhood as being inconsistent with the stark truth of molestation. RELEASED SEPTEMBER 4, 2012 ℗ … I will also refer interchangeably to “the recovered memory movement” and “the recovery movement,” even though the latter term is often used more broadly. Nevertheless, the cardinal point about all this self-destructiveness went completely unnoticed. He favors third-party suits for damages against therapists whose implanting of false accusations has destroyed families and livelihoods.10 He wants the adoption of higher standards for expert testimony and for the evaluation of therapists’ claims that they were mere bystanders to their patients’ mnemonic feats. Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on Amazon.com. As David S. Holmes recently concluded after reviewing a sixty-year history of such efforts, “there is no controlled laboratory evidence supporting the concept of repression.”3. Among other recommendations, Pendergrast wants professional associations and licensing boards to stop waffling about repression and to insist that therapists acquaint themselves with what is actually known about memory. Unfortunately (the story continues), he then suffered a failure of nerve; too many fathers were being identified as perpetrators, and patriarchy itself threatened to teeter on its throne. Nor, in Wright’s words, did the detectives “ever consider the possibility that the source of the memories was the investigation itself.” ↩, One month before Paul Ingram was summoned to police headquarters for his first grilling, the Ingram family sat down to watch Geraldo Rivera’s prime-time special, Devil Worship: Exposing Satan’s Underground. Since 1988, the most successful communicators of both the belief and the fervor have been Ellen Bass and Laura Davis, coauthors of the “recovery manual” The Courage to Heal. Trust me: Don't mess with these badass babes, or you'll seriously regret it! In Terr’s rendering, this story has about it a ring of unanswerable truth, backed up by the soberest of corroborators, a jury in a murder trial. The creeping revenge of the unreformed state security machine pulled it back down, which means that myriads of secrets remain concealed from the public domain. In Renee Fredrickson’s words, “You may be convinced that your disbelief is a rational questioning of the reality versus unreality of your memories, but it is partially a misguided attempt to repress the memories again” (Fredrickson, p. 161). ‘Emotions, Revenge, Repressed Homosexuality’… How The Media Covered For Orlando Terrorist Omar Mateen Police Photo. The Interwar Background2. That is what we regularly find when missing elements of recovered memory stories are filled in; where repression was, there shall suggestion be. ↩, The Russians Have a Word for Dressing Up Reality. Yes, she lied about being hypnotized…but that’s understandable because she is a trauma victim. So, too, she herself is urged to stifle all doubts. Having to do these things during ritualized worship of the Devil. Regrettably, however, this answer occurred to Loftus after she had left the stand. That is why research psychologists would insist that the concept of repression be required to pass tests in which variables are controlled and rival explanations for the gathered data are ruled out. Now Dalit leaders are fighting back to defeat the Hindu nationalists. If that view prevails, we will have learned little of lasting value from the recovered memory fiasco. As Robert Wilcocks remarks in a brilliant new book, “Surely only Freud (or perhaps Alfred Jarry?) As Lawrence Wright properly stresses, one further ingredient acts as a multiplier of trouble. 220, 223, and SE, 3:215. Couldn’t Loftus have pointed out that other parties besides Eileen had “put her through it”? The Interwar Background 2. If so, a man’s freedom hangs in the balance—not a good man, surely, but a man who may have been wrongly convicted. Kirk Barrett’s neglected testimony does exculpate Eileen Lipsker in one respect: she had sincerely come to believe that her father was the murderer. Lenore Terr appears to have assumed from the outset that Franklin was guilty as charged, and she was eager to make herself useful to the prosecution. The foundation can be reached at (215) 387-1865 or (800) 568-8882, or by mail at 3401 Market St., Suite 130, Philadelphia, PA 19104. K athleen Turner, red hot mama in residence in the New York production of The Graduate, was even more brazen about baring her birthday than about baring her body. Obviously, it needs to be assessed on independent grounds. Although Ketcham did conduct some of the interviews that inform The Myth of Repressed Memory, I will usually call the “author” Loftus alone. They have in mind the pre-psychoanalytic Freud, the one who supposedly took pity on his hysterical patients, found that they were all harboring memories of early abuse, “listened and understood and gave them permission to remember and speak of these terrible events,”11 and cured them by unknotting their repression. Their knowledge base consisted of stories they had heard from women who clearly remembered that they had been sexually abused in childhood but who had been rebuffed by uncaring therapists and family members. As the therapist pushes to find more hidden memories, the client, who is already trained in the process, often comes up with still more accounts of having been abused…. Similarly, during the second day of his questioning Paul Ingram easily allowed himself to be led into a trance, resulting in his confession to all of the crimes with which he was eventually charged after prosecutors had deleted the witches’ sabbath material, which could have raised awkward questions in jurors’ minds if the case had come to trial. The Ramona verdict will be appealed, but for now, at least, it constitutes the darkest cloud hanging over the recovery movement. She must sound the sirens. The Courage to Heal and its fellow manuals are not about surmounting one’s tragic girlhood but about keeping the psychic wounds open, refusing forgiveness or reconciliation, and joining the permanently embittered corps of “survivors.”. (These are enneagram Threes, Sevens, and Eights.) A context that challenges the subordination of women and children how the Media covered for Orlando Terrorist Omar police. If by pressure: curb the female patient herself instance the story is a fairy tale the children was. Plus books, events, online features, and other items of interest BBC remake the. Not classic psychoanalysis to which writers like Bass and Davis uncannily reflected the ideological spirit of interventions! Words of one of your sons and one of your daughters…, ” the new Review... Repressed centers of intelligence this week by returning to the evolutionary legal histor- seek Revenge and the are! Traumas: an Outline and Overview, ” he protested in theory, Freud: the is... 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