He also had the fifteenth-century Timurid manuscript Mantiq al-tair (The Language of the Birds) refurbished; four paintings were added and the manuscript presented to the shrine at Ardabil in 1609. \^/, “Compound weave structures incorporating gold or silver strips or metal-wrapped threads floating on the face of the cloth (26.231.2), referred to as "brocades," added a sumptuous quality to the sophisticated palette of pistachio green, salmon pink, alizarin, cream, and ochre. Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, Library of Congress, U.S. government, Compton’s Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, and various books, websites and other publications. Safavid Empire 1502 - 1736 By: Shapour Ghasemi After the disastrous invasion of Mongols, in the 1200s, migrated Turks and Mongolian tribes adopted the Persian customs and even language. “The Hall of Forty Columns” was famous for its glazed tiles. They are wedged between the Wealthiest empire of this period (the Mughals) and the longest lasting empire of all time (the Ottomans). Isfahan had one of the largest with a population of one million. \^/, “Textiles on the loom are produced by the intersection of warp threads, held taut, and weft threads, which are interwoven to create different patterns on the surface of the cloth. Loose, ankle-length trousers peek out from beneath a chemise or pirahan falling straight to the knees for men, and mid-calf for women. Persian artists created great miniature painting, carpets, tapestries, metal work. Persian velvets in particular were lauded as the finest and most expensive on the international market, and often found their way beyond palace walls into church treasuries as linings for reliquaries, or fashioned into liturgical garments such as copes (49.32.71) and chasubles. Plus, they are further outcast by the fact that the Mughals and Ottomans are Sunni; the Safavids are Shi’a. Chronicles by visitors such as Sir John Chardin, a French jeweler who traveled through Iran from 1673 to 1677, reveal the importance of appearance and dress in Safavid society and include detailed engravings that illustrate four different costume styles for men and women. The stories are represented as scenes repeated within a foliate or rectilinear framework, often accompanied by poetry. The edges of the outer robe are depicted tucked into a belt made of strips of leather, connected by floral-shaped metal fastenings. These workshops were an innovative adaptation to meet the needs of the increasing attention to art and trade during this period. “The political ideology of the Safavids was manifested in the headgear of its rulers. Islamic culture The Ottoman Empire rose to power from various groups of Western Oghuz Turks from Central Asia. When the Safavid capital was established in Isfahan in 1598, Armenian textile workers were relocated to the neighborhood of New Julfa, in close proximity to Shah Abbas' palatial complex. The importance of clothing within Perso-Islamic culture is enhanced by cultural practices. Abbas II (r. 1642–66) added the Chihil Sutun, a pavilion with large-scale wall paintings of historical and literary subjects, to the royal complex in Isfahan. These fashionable figures were also copied in textiles, figural tile panels, and other media. Suzan Yalman of New York University wrote: “In 1597–98, Isfahan became the new capital of Iran when Shah Abbas I (r. 1587–1629) moved the Safavid government there as part of his larger plan to lift the country from the slump into which it had fallen. His reign witnessed the careers of such artists as Aqa Riza, Sadiqi, Ali Riza Tabrizi, and Mir Imad. Exhibition catalogue.. Brooklyn: Brooklyn Museum of Art, 1998; Dickson, Martin Bernard, and Stuart Cary Welch The Houghton Shahnama. They expanded their empire by wagging Jihads(Holy war) against other countries. Likewise, it was customary to wear new clothing at weddings and other celebrations throughout the year. The Safavid Empire, based in Persia (), ruled over much of southwestern Asia from 1501 to 1736.Members of the Safavid Dynasty likely were of Kurdish Persian descent and belonged to a unique order of Sufi -infused Shi'a Islam called Safaviyya. powerful empires and several strong regional states brought a steady rise in power and culture over a long period of time. ... Art mixed together Persian and European culture, most well shown in their carpets. From the last quarter of the seventeenth century until the dynasty's end following the Afghan invasion in 1722, there was a marked change in the textiles produced as Iranian weavers stepped down their aesthetic and working methods to suit the tastes and economy of the declining regime.” \^/. “Menswear evolved along similar lines, in that the outer robe became more fitted and often included a fur collar and a lining. : Harvard University Press, 198. Although he was heir to a very traditional form of painting, Riza introduced a new set of subjects to the Persian oeuvre (50.164). The capital of the Safavid empire was Isfahan, founded in 1501. Art and Culture When the Safavid Empire began its rule over Persia, Persia became a great center of art and culture. Metropolitan Museum of Art, metmuseum.org \^/], “The role of Iran as a major participant in a larger economy created by the European commercial expansion of the sixteenth century was another influence in the arts of this era. Because of the creativity of this society Isfahan has become one of the beautiful and elegant cities in the world. It also came to terms with the Tajik aristocracy, which included the established ulama. Woven from the Soul, Spun from the Heart: Textile Arts of Safavid and Qajar Iran, 16th–:19th Centuries. [Source:Nazanin Hedayat Munroe, Department of Islamic Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org \^/], “Styles after 1650 reflect a dramatic shift toward tailored garments, possibly in emulation of European examples. 1747- The Safavid dynasty and his rule comes to an end after its reign from 1502 to 1747. Textile production in court-sponsored workshops declined, while the private sector of the textile industry regained independence, producing silks for the expanding international demand. The textile industry consisted of urban workshops producing textiles independently, provincial centers focusing on rug weaving, and small farms cultivating silk in the Caspian region. Pretty much everything you need to know about the Safavid Dynasty revolves around one of two things: 1. Safavid history is rife with clashes and wars between the Shi'a Muslim Safavid Persians and the Sunni Ottoman Turks. Because of the creativity of this society Isfahan has become one of the beautiful and elegant cities in the world. The Safavids spent money to promote religion by using grants to build shrines and religious schools. Early on, the Safavids were at a disadvantage to the better-armed Ottomans, but they soon closed the arms gap. Bier, Carol, ed. Often these are worn beneath a short-sleeved robe, emphasizing the contrasting colors of the trousers and chemise in lapis blue, emerald green, and tomato red. This local textile industry included dyers, weavers, and embroiderers producing luxury textiles mainly for export under the supervision of the state. In this period, handicrafts such as tile making, pottery, and textiles developed and great advances were made in miniature paintin… The Mughal Empire was vastly wealthy and demonstrated immense artistry in the textiles, paintings and other commodities for trade. Silk velvets (12.72.5) were produced either as continuous pile, creating a supple and luxurious cloth, or manipulated by selectively weaving areas with pile and leaving other areas as flat weaves, creating a "voided" effect (52.20.13). The Safavid empire was very closely linked to the Mughal Empire in India. The exceptional quality of woven textiles during this era resides in the designs. Style in the courts became increasingly Westernized as shorter, tailored garments with stiff fabrics replaced loose layers of silk, and the fine details of earlier textiles gave way to more static compositions. Shah Abbas encouraged trade with Europe, silk being Iran's main export. Complex designs were created using the lampas technique, a compound structure that allowed for figural and floral designs to be produced in fluid lines with a range of delicate colors. The most important decisions made by the Safavid Empire when it came into power was declaring the state religion as Shi’ism. The initial Ottoman-Safavid conflict culminated in the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, and Cambridge, Mass. In order to revive the national economy, Abbas courted foreign traders and made commercial agreements with several European nations. In He then relocated the Armenians from the city of Julfa, who controlled much of the Persian end of a bustling international silk trade, to a neighborhood in Isfahan called New Julfa and gave them the monopoly on silk exports. Under the Safavids, Turkish was the language of the armies, Persian was the language of administration and culture and Arabic was the language or religion and law. Even though these strict religious values made the empire grow, at the end these strict views were one of the reasons of the Safavid decline in 1736. Text references and scattered remains indicate that Shah Tahmasp also sponsored numerous building projects, particularly at Qazvin, his capital after 1555, but little survives. The á¹¢afavid period, like the Ottoman era, was an imperial age, and therefore there is hardly a part of Iran where either á¹¢afavid buildings or major á¹¢afavid restorations cannot be found. Lampas-woven textiles were used in garments and furnishings (1972.189). Who was the leader of safavid empire? Abbas also created a new standing army which halted the encroachments of the Mughals and the Ottomans and restabilized the country's territories. It was regarded as the ultimate signifier of political allegiance. The capital of the Safavid empire was Isfahan, founded in 1501. The early 17th century in Persia was a golden age of Islamic art and architecture—especially in Isfahan. It was an Iranian dynasty of Kurdish origin, but during their rule they intermarried with Turkoman, Georgian, Circassian, and Pontic Greek dignitaries. 2 vols. Ranging in length from hip to calf, the overcoat was cut with rounded hips or a flared skirt to accentuate the natural curves of the wearer (49.32.76). \^/, “After Abbas' death in 1629, both the Safavid state and its capital suffered. The great days of Safavid art were over, however, and Iran was heading in new directions.”. Safavid culture played a role in the empire's economy because Abbas encouraged the manufacturing of traditional products. Isfahan became one of the most beautiful cities in the world. London: Unwin Hyman, 1987. What was probably the most important result of Western influence on the Safavid Empire? The Safavids were named after their founder Safi al-Din, who died in 1334. While women are depicted rarely in these figural silks, floral designs depicting the rose and nightingale (gul-o-bul-bul) (26.231.2) and similar motifs are abundant. decline of the empire. Cultural Blending is caused by migration, pursuit of religious freedom, trade, and conquest. Semi-nude women, languid youths, and lovers soon came to replace the heroes of the Shahnama and the Khamsa in many an artist's repertoire. \^/, “The woven figural motifs featured on outer garments for men often depicted characters from Persian literature, such as poet Nizami’s Layla and Majnun or Khusrau and Shirin (1978.60), endowing the wearer with an affinity for the qualities of these protagonists. As the Safavids set up their capital cities of Tabriz, Qazvin, and finally Isfahan, the textile industry became centralized and was swiftly incorporated into the national economy, creating an expansive revenue stream. Hair was worn long and collected into multiple braids, adorned at the ends with silver or gold ornaments. Fashion in the Golden Era of Shah ‘Abbas (1587–1625), Nazanin Hedayat Munroe of the Metropolitan Museum of Art wrote: “The true flowering of Persian art across all disciplines occurred under the patronage of Shah ‘Abbas I (r. 1587–1625). This constitutes 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. Women’s attire, as depicted by Chardin and in surviving garments, consists of a tailored jacket with tight sleeves and open to mid-chest, where it was cinched to the waistline with several fastenings along a central front seam. Abbas managed to destroy the rival Turkish Gazilbash tribes, reform the army, and create a prosperous economy based on the trade of luxury goods, especially silk brocades. May 29, 1555 . [Source: Sardar, Marika. How did Isma’il’s rule affect the Islam religion? A special form of land use in the Safavid empire was the so-called yÅ«rd (Doerfer, Elemente II, pp. During the expansion of the empire, the Safavid regime closely resembled the Aqquyunlu and Timurid regimes that it supplanted. From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over parts of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identityof the regio… The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Iranian Azerbaijan region. Isfahan had one of the largest with a population of one million. It also had 163 mosques, 48 religious schools, 1801 shops and 263 public baths. New York: Abrams, 2000.Chardin, Sir John Travels in Persia. As a result, single-page paintings, less costly than fully illustrated manuscripts, became popular. … A portrait of Robert Sherley by Anthony van Dyck (1622) depicts him in full Safavid attire as the Persian ambassador, wearing the robe of honor and accessories with which Shah ‘Abbas presented him.” \^/, Fashion in the Later Safavid Period (1650–1722), Nazanin Hedayat Munroe of the Metropolitan Museum of Art wrote: “Fashions throughout this period differ from the cut and fit of earlier garments, reflecting changing tastes and ideas in Safavid society. Safavid Empire • Textiles and carpets were made of luxury materials as furnishings for the court. The basic elements of the outer robe, chemise, and trousers from the early period are still seen a century later; however, the belted robes are now accentuated by wide, gold-embellished sashes. Many Persian carpets can be found in collections throughout Europe as they became status symbols. Modeling, foreshortening, spatial recession, and the medium of oil painting were all adopted by Persian artists but were employed in depictions of familiar subjects or in combination with traditional conventions. The Ottoman attacks on the Safavid empire resulted in Shah Tahmasp I, Ismail I son and successor, moving the capital from Tabriz to the city of Qazvin, an interior city, in 1548. Shenasa, Nazanin Hedayat “Donning the Cloak: Safavid Silks and the Display of Identity.” Master’s thesis, San Jose State University, http://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4417&context=etd_theses.. n/a: n/a, n/a. The art of painting continued to flourish, with single-page paintings and drawings becoming more popular than manuscript illustration. \^/, “After Abbas I, the Safavids continued as patrons, but on a reduced scale. The Safavids were named after their founder Safi al-Din, who died in 1334. [Source:Nazanin Hedayat Munroe, Department of Islamic Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org \^/]. “The Hall of Forty Columns” was famous for its glazed tiles. From the old Seljuk city center he built a two-kilometer-long bazaar to a new town square called the Maidan-i Shah, located to the south near the Zaianda River. Nazanin Hedayat Munroe of the Metropolitan Museum of Art wrote: “Carrying a range of political and literary messages, fashions from Safavid Iran (1501–1722) were a versatile medium for self-expression. But the legacy lives on in the state that exists today and also in the culture of the Safavids - literature, architecture, art and poetry, seen particularly in Isfahan, a capital of the empire for a period. 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